Reflections on the Karanīya mettā sutta 
Part 1-5
(from the translated talks given by ven. Kidagammulle Pemasiri Mahā Thera transcribed by David Young)

Note: LH (Loku Hāmuduruwo) refers to the teacher, bh. Pemasiri giving the talk)

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The first discourse

Lord Buddha preached this sutta to a group of bhikkhus who lived in a forest. They lived for three months (vassa) in this forest. When they were meditating for some time in this forest, it became a very difficult situation. This is an important point for meditators... Those bhikkhus, they didn't have enough mettā with them, because of that the devas dwelling above the trees didn't like these bhikkhus. But virtue of those bhikkhus was good, so the devas couldn't live on the tree tops while the bhikkhus were living under the boughs. So they had to come down from the tops. So these devas thought: "Now we have to chase these bhikkhus away from this forest." And they started to show various fearful objects like bodies without heads etc. ....distorted, headless bodies they showed to those bhikkhus. So the bhikkhus started to be afraid and became thin, frail, sick. Then they went to the Buddha and said: "Lord, we can't stay in that forest.", and lord Buddha said: "No, no, that is a suitable place for you.", and taught them this mettā meditation sutta. All the yogis who are meditating they need mettā. But for us here we need not be afraid of ghosts and other things, here we don't have such problems. These things, you should not imagine that you might see these things/face such situations (outside meditation). None should imagine that way. And in meditation all yogis experience such situations, various forms or headless forms yogis can see. It is not this situation, so we should not mix up these two. One who lives in a forest, he must have great wisdom. We can understand this particular wisdom of one who lives in a forest through these suttas like Vanapattha  (MN 17), Bhaya-bherava (MN 4) suttas. The latter explains the example of the bodhisatta - even the bodhisatta was sometimes scared, had to face such situations. At night sometimes various sounds came because of animals, because of a deer or a peacock various strange sounds came up, then he examined them and came to realize that there is no need to fear here... this is because of these... these... species. In the forest some animals sleep in the day time and walk at night. So we needn’t be afraid of such animals. These animals, because they are afraid of us, they run away, but we think we saw a ghost. The incident explained in the commentary to the KMS (that is the Karanīya mettā sutta (Sn 1.8 & Khp 9) and experiences we get in our meditation are two different things. In the KMS those bhikkhus didn't have enough mettā.

  Once I (Loku Hāmuduruwo) was in a kuti in a forest. Nobody liked to go to that kuti, because after ten o'clock at night somebody tapped at the door. In this kuti the door had two parts, lower and upper part - so when we wanted we could close the lower part and the upper part could be opened. So one day I was waiting for this ghost who did the tapping and I closed the upper part of the door and didn't close the lower part. Then I found this ghost. Very close to this door there was a tree with small fruit/nuts   because of the nice smell of this fruit bees/hornets were coming. So, usually nothing special happened, but on full moon days much more bees were coming. And these bees came and settled on the door. There were very big geckos in the jungle. They came and ate these bees and tapped at the door with their tails. So always time to time this thing was happening, moreover bats and rats came to catch these geckos. They time to time made these tapping sounds. So Loku Hāmuduruwo became very happy. These other monks understood. Yes, this kind of frightening objects are there in the jungle, but when we examine them, there is not anything to be afraid of.

 Because of this situation meditation also can come to low level, both samatha and vipassanā disappear. Fear means aversion… They are interdependent… Because of fear aversion comes, because of aversion fear comes. Anger has other various subdivisions : fear, irritation and so on… all these are subsections of the … When one lives in forest and feels fear, that means he has anger. Yes, this fear is a defilement of meditation – upakkilesa. … It is a kind of sub defilement. If we practice mettā, we can subside this fear, subdue it. In order to subdue fear lord Buddha preached this Karanīya mettā sutta. If one has good mettā, he can live with any ghosts … any person, any creature … , can live with animals, whatever. If one has … Some animals come closer to human beings -  they think that humans will help them. Even small elephants or bear cubs can come close to a human. They think a human will help them, so there is no need to be afraid of them. So this mettā meditation is very helpful to the yogi in two aspect: one is deficiencies coming from within oneself and the other is problems coming from outside. To face both these situations mettā meditation is very helpful to the yogi.

Karanīyam attha kusalena
 There are prior requisites to start mettā meditation. Karanīya mettā sutta – the first part explains these requirements: 'Karanīyam attha kusalena', so karanīya means “what should be done”. And then one should understand “what should not be done” also… Both karanīya and akaranīya … “....attha kusalena” means attha kusala … That is … “one who wants to develop oneself”. He should know what he should do and what he should not do. There are aspects we have to learn: attha kusala & anattha kusala and karanīya & akaranīya. There are to persons in this world, one wants to do things for his or her benefit and the second one doesn’t want to.  Like... we just sit and think: “Now I am meditating.” But it doesn’t happen like that. There are certain duties or responsibilities, that one should put in first. These are not for this institute but for oneself. … They benefit our practice. … They look like sort of “you are doing something for this place or meditation center” but actually it is a part of our own spiritual development.

 We’ll talk about “what should be done” - karanīya and the akaranīya - “what should not be done”. There are three things to be done. This adhisīla adhicitta adhipaññā. Before one starts with mettā, he or she should adjust the life in a way that within this life these develop. That is: Adhisīla means higher training or virtue, adhicitta higher mental culture, adhipaññā means higher wisdom; beyond normal level.


Adhisīla here … we normally take this adhisīla as upasampadā sīla – pātimokkha sīla. But Loku Hāmuduruwo says “Here it is not so”. It is also adhisīla … that is upasampadā sīla is also adhisīla, but now Loku Hāmuduruwo is going to explain the practical aspects of a yogi’s adhisīla. So this particular adhisīla is not something outside or an artificial thing, that is within that adhisīla there is something digested to one’s life. It’s within, one doesn’t have to think: “Now I am protecting this precept, that precept; I am doing this … or that …”. There is no need to think about this. All these things are within one’s life. And this state comes after subduing hindrances. Because of this sīla there is not any harm to his meditation ..”kukus”(restlessness). This is a level understood as sīla visuddhi. He earlier also said, that this person, who is practicing in a proper way would have his or her mind inclining, the sīla part of it, would naturally incline towards vipassanā. As it assumes a certain standard of samatha (tranquility) there is a potential or it, sort of, can incline towards insight knowledges. …  The knowledges haven’t arisen yet, but it (the sīla) is helping them, it is kind of laying the groundwork for those to arise. The hindrances have been suppressed.  It is not that they are uprooted completely, but they are not a problem for the yogi. There is no sort of restlessness regarding the sīla, you know “my sīla might be broken” and then there is no trouble, for him having been well established in that sīla. There is no likelihood of breaking it, there is no clinging to this sīla aspect either. Yes, now, our, that is, bhikkhus’ adhisīla - high ordination sīla, from time to time breaks and we again and again repair it. But this particular adhisīla (the one LH speaks of) is not possible to break.


Then adhicitta means higher state of mind, higher mental purity. When these hindrances have been suppressed for a long time, or this is, in other words at jhāna level or beyond jhāna [state of mind]. Sometimes it is misused or misunderstood, this adhicitta - a sort of higher mental state; and people perform certain sort of rituals with the idea of, you know, winning the world cup and so on… And we can see how it didn’t work. … And that thing has nothing to do with adhicitta. And then sometimes healing powers. Healing has nothing to do with true higher mental state; sometimes also performing feats or magic are contributed to higher mental states. I (Loku Hāmuduruwo) have also studied, investigated into these matters; in my youth. If I wanted I could make a sort of sound come from under the ground, and make a little bird fly out of a cauldron of oil. With all his money he can then manifest more money than he had before, [venerable Dhammarakkhita said “that would be very useful” and the audience laughed]. That was my interest when I was in the age of twelve to fifteen. Another one was this … like you light a lamp and see serpents all over the house … all these things are mixed with unwholesomeness. For example for some you need to kill a small kind of snake in a very painful way, then you preserve it in a certain way for some time and then get some oil from it and so on. This might be thought of as adhicitta. But it has nothing to do with it. It can only come from samatha or vipassanā. Adhicitta means a very high level of samatha. This adhicitta then turns to adhipaññā. Adhicitta is always at sankhāra upekkhā ñāna level, that means the jhāna mind that comes with sankhārā upekkhā we understand as adhicitta

For a normal kind of person this kind of miracles is not that much harmful, but if a high ordained monk is doing such things it’s very very harmful – showing miracles, showing magics. Yes, for David or George it’s not that much harmful to show miracles to others and saying: “Aah, it’s adhicitta – the higher level of mind.”, but if a high ordained monk is doing this it’s very harmful because if a bhikkhu does something many people are misguided, because of his action, such people we can identify as “bālo”, or fools, who close the path to nibbāna. Some monks took up this astrology and foretell future. … And they think they have some kind of special power that enables them to tell the future… Sometime ago, somebody told Loku Hāmuduruwo that people with adhicitta abilities are going to the parliament, and Loku Hāmuduruwo says, that certainly anybody with adhicitta would not end up in a parliament.


Adhicitta – if it’s real adhicitta – he realizes the tilakkhana - anicca, dukkha, anattā – properly and he is very close to nibbāna, if one has real adhicitta. Yes, if one has real adhicitta, he always grasps (comprehends) objects with tilakkhana. Such high level we identify as adhicitta, at that stage the hindrances are completely suppressed; at once adhipaññā comes. Then for such a person who suppressed nīvaranas to such extent, he gets adhipaññā. At once adhipaññā comes and his nīvaranas completely break or are eradicated.

 In Anguttara Nikāya there are many short suttas, (and also in Samyutta Nikāya) explaining about adhisīla, adhicitta, adhipaññā. So we have to study these. Yogi normally comes to this stage adhisīla, adhicitta, adhipaññā – level – if yogi comes to the anuloma ñāna level that means he dwells in adhipaññā stage/level. These things yogi should practice. First thing is we should suppress hindrances, than only we can break them. The same applies also to samyojanas, that is after suppressing all ten fetters, then only one, two or three could be broken. This adhisīla, adhicitta, adhipaññā is to beat or weaken the fetters, we have ten fetters. To break them we need adhisīla, adhicitta, adhipaññā. Also those bhikkhus in the sutta went to the forest in order to develop these and to break the fetters. Because of the incident with the devas frightening the bhikkhus, then they couldn’t develop adhisīla, adhicitta, adhipaññā then they couldn’t break the ten fetters. Nowadays many people want to break only three samyojanas and to become sotāpannas. With any other thing it is no problem to think and say whatever, but this is something not good to think and not good to say. Because all those ten fetters should be suppressed equally or all five hindrances should be suppressed equally. Nowadays people say: “Oh, if I can suppress only this doubt and become a sotāpanna! That’s enough”.  

So Loku Hāmuduruwo says when he hears statements like this a lot of thoughts connected with anger are arising in his mind, just by hearing this kind of comment. “Suppress one hindrance and break three fetters” – It’s like a bargain. “Shall I talk to these?... They are like cows!”... It’s definitely a bad… I mean connected with aversion or anger.... Sometimes you can not tell those, because they know so much. To break doubt or to break samyojanas, these adhicitta, adhisīla, adhipaññā should work equally. There are some people who have sotāpanna level in formal ways, so it’s very very difficult to convince such people to take this thing back. That is we should suppress all fetters and develop completely adhisīla, adhicitta, adhipaññā. These things now, as an example – a man is beating a big boulder with a sledge hammer. When he is continuously hitting the stone according to his course this huge rock will break. The same way sati and sampajañña beat all these ten fetters. So according to the way the person beats the rock, it breaks, likewise that person’s mindfulness and clear comprehension – it is according to them that his ten fetters break. These things we should know, because the world is going the opposite way – different direction. “Karanīyam attha kusalena” …  Yes, this is to be cultivated by oneself … it is adhisīla, adhicitta, adhipaññā … also I shouldn’t do anything to harm my adhisīla, adhicitta, adhipaññā. What has to be done has to be done, that is if I have to scold somebody I do it but without aversion and the same applies for praise.

 As for akaranīya…there are four vipattis … courses of harmfulness, harmful things that one should not do. There are four such things: sīla vipatti, ditthi vipatti, ācāra vipatti, ājīva vipatti. If one has these four things he can’t achieve the things we discussed earlier, that is adhisīla, adhicitta, adhipaññā one can’t get them if he has sīla vipatti. It means loss or distraction of sīla [morality, virtue], ditthi vipatti which means loss or distraction of view, ācāra vipatti which means loss or destruction of kind of conduct or life, ājīva vipatti which means loss or distraction of livelihood. We can very correctly divide them if we are high ordained. According to pātimokkha we can understand seventeen rules (pārājikā and sanghā disesā) as sīla vipatti, 203 precepts as ācāra vipatti and the 21 things a bhikkhu should not do (as means of living) these we understand as ājīva vipatti and ditthi vipatti is all other – wrong views. For bhikkhus it is quite easy to divide, but for lay people it is not so easy to discriminate. So high ordained monk means he is very close to attaining nibbāna if he practices properly. If we give a simile: a lay person is somebody, who has to cross over a desert to reach nibbāna, but a high ordained bhikkhu has already crossed the desert. He has to do very few things to attain nibbāna

So in lay life also there are things that apply to harm or destruction but it doesn’t correspond directly with the four things that apply to upasampadā bhikkhus loss … It is especially for lay or family life: loss of one’s wealth which can cause a lot of problems; and loss of ñāti or relatives; also the associations’ loss that can cause problems. And there is also a loss of virtue which can be a problem. Those three in the case of recluses or ordained (because they have renounced wealth and relatives etc.) -  loss of those doesn’t really have the same impact or effect on their lives as for a lay person – householder, for whom the wealth and relatives are very important. In case of the monks if their virtue – sīla is broken or disturbed in any way they can go to another monk and admit that and make amends for it. Sometimes it can happen in their life that people are wrongly accused of offenses and so they might even be forced to pay the penalty for it by order of the government or the law, according to the law. But they haven’t actually committed these crimes, they are accused of; it is possible that even though there wasn’t any breakage of sīla, yet they have to still suffer the consequences of it (that is the false accusation). I used to visit prisons when I was about 20 or 22, I used to meet very good people there imprisoned and some of them actually had not committed any crime, yet they were condemned for life in imprisonment. So they haven’t even killed an animal in their life, and yet they have been framed, accused of killing a human being. He (LH) reckons it might have had something to do with the nature of kamma – to be wrongly accused. In the case of monks this ājīva or livelihood they are not supposed to work, for example as teachers or public servants employed by the government, like these parliamentarian monks. They come also under this misdemeanor. They might be convinced that this dispensation might not survive were it not for their efforts but actually it’s going against it..... So this is actually this is … for example somebody comes and sees all the nice plants and flowers and asks for a plant, flower or even a piece of wood, but actually he can not be given any of these without breaking the rules. … 


Reflections on the Karanīya mettā sutta  
(Part 2)

The second discourse

So actually today he Loku Hāmuduruwo (LH) happened to switch the TV. It was by coincidence that the theme of the talk discussed by scholarly monks was this Karanīya mettā sutta (Sn 1.8 & Khp 9). And basically it was explaining what and how the qualities have to be developed. Before practicing meditation these, as outlined in the Karanīya mettā sutta, have to be developed. Some people come, sort of, with the idea of attaining nibbāna - that is their main goal; some come with other problems in their heads and then they, sort of, impose something on others, causing problems. He (LH) has recently encountered two such cases and had to take actions. In one case asking him to leave. Sometimes yogis that come don’t seem to have any kind of idea of how to go about settling in the place. There might be shortcomings but their way of addressing the problems and talking to Loku Hāmuduruwo about it and solving these problems which they kind of become more agitated. They are not in position to take their practice further … Try to maintain the kutiin best possible order... But then, in his (LH’s) mind, when these yogis come and start complaining about all the facilities available to them in the kuti, then he (LH) has doubts about even the boys, that are working here and who are supposed to maintain the facilities. This all must be clarified and it is difficult to settle down to meditation afterwards. 

A degree of patience and kindness and so forth, these qualities have to be developed before we can, maybe, meditate. Some amount of suffering is also necessary for the meditator. We shouldn’t, sort of, 'mulicuddle'(?) them or spoil them... 
[here Loku Hāmuduruwo asked about Stephan and if you check one upon another]... That is good, if you look one after another, find out how people are doing and share whether there is a class or there is not, and just share your information and look one after another. So, sort of, harmony is very delightful, is very comforting to monks and to those who are practicing. Another requirement is described like this: that when you are in a meditating community, you should regard one another with kindness and love, with concern for each other and there is a simile given: they should be like water and milk – mix together so close (blending with ease), very well. Sometimes we look at each other in an unkindly, uncaring way and, sort of, think of the faults: “This person has prevented me from meditating today.” Or something like that. 

But it is better to have concern and be caring in the very looks we give one another or ready to interact with each other..[Pātimokkha samvara sīla] Firstly about the rules of training pertaining to restraint. There are four types of restraint. One pātimokkha samvara sīla – high ordination one, indriya samvara sīla – restraint of the faculties, then ājīva pārisuddha – purity of livelihood, is the third one.. Wisely using the four requirements is the fourth one [paccaya sannissita], so for a monk with higher ordination there is no training that is left out. So whatever rules of restraint there are, they have to observe them in a way that it encompasses everything, every system of training and restraining oneself and the word pātimokkha means “arriving at nibbāna quickly”. There is a simile used by the Buddha in one of the suttas (in Sutta Nipāta). He says with regard to lay people, they are like peacocks, you know, with very colorful feathers.. Colorful, beautiful – they might dance and attract other people and generally show off and it’s compared with lay people who are so busy with so many activities and what they get involved with. But the bhikkhu, recluse is compared to a swan, who is quite simple in appearance (being only white) but it’s speed is much higher. And the swan can also fly higher whereas the peacock can, sort of, at most jump from the high height of a tree. So on this spiritual journey monks and recluses are like the swans. Peacocks sort of get involved in fighting with snakes and surviving, sometimes they are beautiful, but they also have to struggle with, sort of life, experiences. The monk, he has, it seems, a better situation, there are no, sort of, problems with regards to family, parents, property, children.. … and other distractions. So the path seems relatively clear. 

For the lay people there are more involvements in their lives, it’s not that they can not progress, they can progress on the special way, but more slowly. So you have expressed the desire to ordain (to David), you can do so even for a couple of months and give up robes after that. So once again pātimokkha is, sort of, a path or a fast track to nibbāna.  The pātimokkha samvara sīla is also referred to , sort of, as things like and uncountable or… 

 Komi asks: “ “kōtiyak” is a million Swāmin wahanse?”  Ven. Dhammarakkhita: “Ten millions.”
 “Kōtiyak” samvara sīla is also used – this phrase, which means, sort of, rules of restraint and this (kōtiyak), sort of, just gives you the scope of it. That practically every kind of restraint would fall under that category. It is something to be undertaken with faith and confidence. Without faith and confidence it would be difficult to follow this kind of thing. The more faith and confidence you have in the teaching the easier it is and the better it will proceed. The head monk of Malwatta chapter (Nikāya) by the name Dhammarakkhita, he had a big, like a forest group, temple (arana) in place called Maliande. So with a lot of faith and confidence this monk used to visit us in Kanduboda with all kinds of grains and corn and so on, with his assistants who would come by bus carrying all these things. As he comes he would generally ask for me (LH) or look for me. So, then he is a head monk of that arana, but he says to me: “Pemasiri, you are the one in charge of ringing the bell for these yogis, I want your job.” So Loku Hāmuduruwo would think, “Why does he want to wake up at three in the morning, walk all this way and ring the bell? Wouldn’t it be a problem for him?” So he (LH) said, : “You know you don’t have to do this.” And the monk replied “No, no, no, I want to do this, because whoever rings the bell, is the one, who summons everyone to meditation. They have to get up, wash their faces and make the effort to come to the hall and meditate, and I want all these merits of this type of wholesome action. And you do this every day, so why don’t you give me the chance, while I am here, to do the same thing and acquire the merits?” So he (Loku Hāmuduruwo) would be glad to give these. So while he, this guest monk, is around, this would be the one to ring the bell in the morning, afternoon, evening, etc. If he goes out, usually on pindapāta, for alms, he would tell me: “I am going out. And probably I would be back by this time…, but in my absence, if the bell needs ringing, you would better do it,” early morning he would get up and go for his alms. Sometimes he would walk as far as Kelaniya and he would go on foot! Then there he would participate in the Buddha pūja, so he would have his dāna there and then come back on foot, and it might be evening by the time he returns.. So one day Loku Hāmuduru asks this guest monk why he was spending all his time walking in order to get to Kelaniya and come back when whole day is gone like that and what is the point of all this. “Just to go and keep the pūja, you can go by bus or you know some other way of getting there quickly.” And the reply was: “No,” and then he recited a gātha and explain that there is a certain type of merit that accrues to one, who walks on foot – not when he goes everywhere, but if one goes to do pūja, to see the Buddha, to give dāna – that kind of walking. So there is a special merit accruing to this type of devotion, to make offering to the Buddha going on foot… Compared to … say this merit of taking one step towards the Buddha in this meritorious act.. to go and see the Buddha in some form, what would venerate the Buddha. It’s worth more than giving a thousand of elephants, a thousand of horses, a thousand of vehicles and a thousand of young maidens that are decked in all their jewelery and finery. This is giving expression of his great devotion, faith and confidence in the Buddha. Because he explained it in this way: “I, I… every step I take, takes me closer to the Buddha there. Place, where the Buddha himself was present and then I come back, I come back with him and go to my kuti.” So when he explained that - this, that every step he was with the Buddha - Loku Hāmuduru also got a lot faith and confidence arising in him. After that I (LH) would wait for this monk to come. After his trip to Kelaniya, I (LH) would make sure that I would make some drink for him. So also Loku Hāmuduruwo was in a habit of sort of venerating the cetiyas, but sitting in the shade so that he is protected from the harsh sunlight.
 [... “He’s implying that it is not proper to do that – while venerating the Buddha to get advantage of the shade,” said ven. Dhammarakkhita. ...]

 So it cut deeply into him and it went to his mind. Then sometimes he didn’t sort of look for the shade of the cetiya, he would go maybe to a shade of a tree of a house or of a building and do his meditation. This was the way of developing his faculty of saddhā, or faith/confidence. In Burma I (LH) learned another lesson. When I was in Burma, there was a man who used to translate from English to Burmese, and one day I got two pictures of the same cetiya. One was taken in the morning, one was taken in the evening. As I (LH) was looking at these pictures, I was sort of just wondering aloud and I told this man: “Which of these pictures is better?” And he was somehow offended – he just left and he didn’t want to say, because it was the same cetiya, only taken in different times. With this, sort of, expression of his face …“”. So then I asked some of the Burmese monks for an explanation, because I couldn’t understand his behavior. Then I was told: “Look, it is the Buddha! The cetiya represents the Buddha and it’s like asking: ‘Does he look better in daylight or at night.’” So that type of question they don’t ask in that country. That was a lesson for me. 

So there are different ways of developing saddhā. [Indriya samvara sīla]So the second point we come to now, is the restraint of sense faculties, indriya samvara sīla. So here we are referring to eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body and the mind, all six factors. So sati or mindfulness is required for the restraint of the sense faculties. So it is extremely important for the meditating yogi, because the whole point of it - when one is asked just to stop at the object without proliferating thoughts and so forth - that requires this restraint of the sense faculties. So it really refers to the Satipatthāna sutta (MN 10 & 'Mahā ...' DN 22); all is about when you look in front, look to the side, you go, you come, you sit, you eat, all these things are done with mindfulness. So before that happens - with lack of restraint - what happens, there is a fundamental advice to it given in the Satipatthāna sutta. So because what happens without this restraint, there is a sort of a judgment, evaluation and then there is, you know, a lot of complications arising after that. So what is recommended is this restraint of the sense faculties at the very beginning… ? 

So you have the method of how saddhā/confidence arose, and how mindfulness has to be established and so forth. Sati or mindfulness is, sort of, crucial and helps this restraint of sense faculties. This is also referred to as kāya bhāvanā. There are three aspects: the kāya bhāvanā meditation with regard to the body, the citta bhāvanā with regard to the mind and paññā bhāvanā. So, if this indriya samvara - the restraint of the sense faculties - refers more to the kāya bhāvanā, so as ven. Dhammarakkhita mentioned earlier [a short comment that was not translated] then, where there is restraint with regard to the eye faculty, there is no, sort of, faults running further or proliferation of thoughts and getting caught up in this. So there is a tendency to become calm and tranquil. [Ājīva pārisuddha] Viriya/effort is the cause or because of effort there is purity of livelihood and similarly in the previous ones also. And effort is very closely tied with livelihood aspects. So what is really the fundamental to this word, that is viriya, is to maintain the wholesomeness, the wholesome aspect in the mind. So one who is practicing like this, with refined effort, he will not allow unwholesomeness to arise and he will not act out of, sort of, cunning or slyness. No deceit; ideas of deceit will not arise. Correct effort is completely wholesome. It is purely pure and completely wholesome and it is engaging in what is wholesome. So there is a keenness to develop wholesome states, that have not yet developed. So it is with the combination of ājīva, spiritual livelihood, and viriya that meditator will think or incline towards making arise the wholesome states that have not yet arisen. Yeah, sometimes we have the habit of … because we chant this quite frequently – this Karanīya mettā sutta  (Sn 1.8 & Khp 9)… sometimes we go very fast in order to finish it from the beginning to the end, but - even that is alright - but it is even better if one can, sort of … takes the time to recite and thinks about what is being said, it is more beneficial. So even if one has to recite fast, it’s alright, if he understands the meaning of what is being said. And you will find your saddhā/confidence grow. 

Similarly with the Mangala sutta, whether you recite it fast or slow, doesn’t matter, as long as you know the ideas what is being expressed, you will take the benefits and it’s alright, you can go fast. As ājīva/livelihood becomes more pure, the mental concomitant called viriya/energy is present. One will incline to get up in the morning, early morning, and will be wanting to … they have a desire to meditate, to do all the duties and obligations, all this is part of purity of livelihood and based on viriya/energy. As you meditate more and more, these things become clear and one begins to understand how it works… [Paccaya sannissita] So … the “praktiya” is support or the use of requisites, in the case of monks, recluses there are four. With the regard to monks it is the requisite of robes, alms, lodgings and medicines in case of the lay people there are basically these two – food and drink, which is one, and the lodging that we have – residence. So it is requirement to be content with what one has got, one has received in the way of requisites, and to live the yogi life. 

So actually, one must speak well of contentment – of what one has got, it is speaking well of what one has received. This implies, not sort of engineering or manipulating in order to get good robes or good food or and putting oneself in a position to get that. So basically what he (LH) says is for lay people who come and associate us – don’t sort of make peacocks of us.

 [Ven. Dhammarakkhita now explained the reflection on the four requisites as follows...] So there is a point about this knowledge of it, this means with certain knowledge and awareness that one makes the use of these requisites. And monks have a certain type of reflection before the partaking of food and use the robes and so on. They reflect wisely why it is, they are eating and so on... [insert the proper pāli formula and translation for the “food reflection”]... and the same way they wear the robes... 
 LH: They have to be used with knowledge and wisdom. And the meditating lay person will also use these requisites ideally with wisdom. Whether the lay person comes even for short time - ten days, a weekend or whatever. We should use these requisites that we get, in the way of food and lodging, with wisdom and with thought why they are doing this activity – they have left their homes, even for a short time, to come and practice. They will be, sort of, contented with what they get in the way of these requisites and whether there are shortcomings or not they will make the best of it…
 I (LH) used to think, when I was a boy, that this duty of bringing “kanda” – conjey – the herbal “drink” (brew) was not a very meritorious thing to do. I understood this sometime later, earlier on I used to actually bring my food from home when I went to meditate. But later my older brother or one of my fathers employees would bring me food and the drink/gilampasse also. Every day one of these people would bring me food, in the morning and at noon-meal-time (and some refreshment in the afternoon). So after my coming to Kanduboda, dāna was provided. Also a sort of ledge built out of cement, with cushions made out from gunny bags, there was a place for walking meditation, so although the facilities are not so good at Kanduboda - unlike at home, where I used to meditate, but because of meditation practice I didn’t feel this – that there was a shortcoming, or that there was something lacking. There were no mosquitoes, that was also a great relief. So this usefulness of requisites became very clear to me at that time. So we had to be at our kuti at 1:30 for the afternoon drink (gilampasse) because by 2:00 we would go to meet the head monk for meditation instruction. And then again at 6:00 in the evening there would be another drink. And that was all till the next morning at 5:30. This is quite good – so there was a good training method also. So one begins to understand the right use of requisites and develops knowledge also in this way. So it’s really the beginning of satipatthāna – these are the preliminary, sort of, items.

 He (LH) now also gives the words: “Satima ātapi and sampajañña”. So satima is on the, sort of, same line as indriya samvara or the restraint of the sense faculties; ātapi same line as energy/indriya and purity of livelihood. Sampajañña which is same as wisdom and wise use of requisites. It is a very practical teaching – sanīpa – reachable, something we can attain easily, something you can do …

 George: “Can I have a question on another topic? Some days ago ven. Pemasiri said something, or I don’t know if it was translated good, like: ‘perceptions work against feelings’”.
 Translator: “He (LH) remembers that, and it is good that you remember it. It is basically, that vedanā is, I don’t know, if I am doing it right, vedanā is spoiled by saññā – feelings are spoiled or distorted by perception. Is that what you meant?”
 George: “Because I remember this, because it crept in the back of my mind, and I would come up to it again. Because something is not clear there. Because of restraint of the sense faculties you try to keep away from this ‘spoiling factor’ of perceptions, that wander off, like for example I look at your face, and of course the old habit of like and dislike comes up – perception – which spoils the act of a new thing in the center, the focusing and not falling victim of like and dislike. Is this too complicated?
 Translator: “No, I understand.”
  Ven. Dhammarakkhita: “This is second one – restraint in the sense faculty is a very, very basic thing. While one is standing on that base he has to study perceptions or feelings and other things. If one starts to try to understand perceptions, feelings, and other things without any sense restriction, he can’t do it. Because this is basic sīla/virtue. While standing on virtue, he can develop wisdom. What we are… when we are analyzing, feelings and all these things it can be counted under wisdom. We can’t reach that wisdom at once without having sense restriction.
  LH: We take present objects while standing on past perceptions – our base is past perception, so.. the past … so in the past there is an object that you have considered, that started with perception. There is an object, that you take in the present, that starts with vedanā – feeling. In the past it would be with saññā/perception, in the present you take up, it starts with vedanā/feeling. There is enough material for a book, if you take … some … to discuss this … the first one, he (LH) says is cittānupassanā … and dhammānupassanā for objects taken in present, that start from vedanā. And for both, this restraint of the senses places measure all in both cases.
 George: “That’s why I came to this question, because it’s immediately linked with it. And I feel, yes, I don’t want to start something off … the offshoot … because there is huge process …
  Translator & LH: “George… so actually, your question sort of inspired or made something else come up in the talk, which is quite useful for us, who are plodding in the past and the present on this road … Taking up of the past or the present through saññā or vedanā respectively.
  George: “Of course, if you only take this, it’s clear you take or like, but they ‘work against’, as I remember the translation. Yes, but continuing the path and working on both this is all hooked on the word ‘perception’. I can’t use the old perception, because the feeling, the working with the vedanā, changes doesn’t allow the old perception. So I have a new perception, which already turns old, that’s why I said: ‘it’s a huge process’.
 LH: So from the vedanā there is a saññā. So actually, as one considers the usefulness of requisites with wisdom more and more, what you brought out one begins to understand more – about taking of the objects in present through, beginning with vedanā and then it turns into saññā.
George: ”Yes, that’s what happened in the past, but this happens in the present too! But the perception will be different.” …
LH: “and the process continues…”
George: “It, yes, continues!!” …
LH: “That’s true indeed, but that’s how we have to break it.
George: “But, er… I am sorry, why should I break the process, it is very rewarding for me?! I learn a lot by it.
Ven. Dhammarakkhita: “It is not for the purpose of learning and sort of increasing our knowledge, that we do this, it’s for our liberation.
 George: “No, not, definitely not, no.. no… not talking about knowledge. It increases my sati in …
 LH: Good, good. Keep going, keep working. Even observing this process of vedanā – saññā working is not the goal of the teaching – it is for the sake of liberation alone. So it is important to observe this saññā – vedanā working, but one has to transcend this process in order to attain liberation, liberation lies beyond this. So LH says, there is a reference to this very thing in two suttas in Majjhima Nikāya: Sārôpama (MN29 & 30 - ”Mahā... & Cūla ”) and Rathavinīta (MN 24 ). So this is sort of mentioned... be aware, that you might have, like some sort of, conceit arising; that, you know, I understand these… WELL! Because Loku Hāmuduru experiences things like that, be wary of the conceit arising then … so this, what we discussed earlier, it’s relevant to the Karanīya mettā sutta…
Ven. Vineethe: “Which part of the sutta, the first words?”
 LH: “Aah, sorry, so we actually haven’t started discussing the sutta. (Everybody’s laughing :-) 

  This is a preliminary grounds for it. We are not yet come to the sutta. So this is a preliminary ground to turn one’s life to nibbāna… Keep constantly reflecting paccavekkhitvā… Constantly reflect… That was the advice to Rāhula: To establish oneself in wholesomeness this kind of contemplation/reflection is very useful. So then, what we discussed yesterday [talk #1], about what can harm a monk or a recluse or a lay person in his practice, that is what was discussed. This is all part of the preliminary – what is beneficial for one seeking liberation. (comments to -> Anattha kusala)

  So on this path there are obstacles [ten palibodhas Vism III.29] also. So one should recognize these obstacles and get out of the way. So there are ten obstacles to one who is practicing this spiritual path, and he should be aware of these obstacles: so these obstacles include āvāsa – one’s lodging, one’s place of residence. Bogha – possessions, yāluwa – even one’s friends, and associates and family can be an obstacle sometimes, ābādha – disease and sickness, “?” when one pursuits sort of educational aspirations, also sometimes this could be an obstacle in the sense of exams and so on. Then, sometimes, people offer, like dwelling places for monks, which are, like, falling down, old houses and that also becomes a big obstacle, because then they have to, you know, spend time repairing it and maintaining it. So that also can become an obstacle. A monk did not become a monk to fix up houses and so on. It’s a different matter, going to an empty house to meditate, but having to look after and maintain it… Sometimes monks are offered kuti in, sort of, the middle of a tea or a coconut estate and they are told: “You just look after everything around and also meditate in this kuti… much merits to you, venerable sir, and it would be a merit to me also, if you stay and meditate and use this.” But then what happens, this with thieves who come to pluck the coconuts, if it’s a tea estate they take the tea… you know, lot of responsibility goes with it. So these are obstacles, and if I am unwise, if I am foolish, I will go and reside in such a place, so this type of offering is suitable for temple monks, who are used to work, and so on. But not ideal for a meditating monk. So he is not trying to discourage anybody from giving anyone… He is relating and anecdote of someone, who had a house and then he asked for a sort of guard dog to guard the place and then for a man to look after the guard dog and then it ended up wanting a gun for the man looking after the dog… Sort of, property and all this kind of acquisitions are also, part of the obstacles to one’s practice… Then sort of gathering of friends and so on, this happens so often… Visits by relatives… you know, people… one’s family members, might come and ask, you know: “Please, chant some pirit for us.” So as, as far as possible, a meditating monk should be free of these obstacles and even the supporters should not, sort of, burden them with these things. That is what is meant by anattha kusala: they prevent, these obstacles prevent one’s, sort of, progress on the spiritual path to nibbāna.   George: “It’s nearly impossible to reach nibbāna by a lay man, because you have these ten obstacles constantly on your back. …
 LH: So actually… You have temporary or a little bit, you have discarded those things or give them less prominence by coming here and practicing.
 George: “That’s correct, now I understand why they take so much longer to cross the desert.
  Hāmuduru (LH) also said, that this is actually not much of Karanīya mettā sutta, it’s related to bhikkhus. He’s saying now, that a lay person can also go quickly on this path. It is possible, especially for younger people, but householders, who have sort of left their household responsibilities for a month or two, maybe delegate the work, you know, the children or other people, who could do it, and then come and practice. Actually, a lot of the adolescents can practice very well. Like before the age of twenty, the practice goes very well. At that age they are with their parents. They can take leave from their parents and come and practice. The parents won’t be anxious about the whereabouts of the kid – they know, that the kid/child is in a particular place. I was given only one admonition, or words of warning: “Don’t behave in a way, that brings shame to the family.” That was all I was told. So, this was the impression in his mind very strongly. That as long as I don’t bring dishonor to my family, to my parents and the old generation of my family – I could do anything else. By that was meant not to steal, not to lie, and not to be deceitful. So, if I protected myself from those things, I was on the right track, and it was easy to meditate with that base. At a young age it’s possible to really do one’s meditation very well. Young monks also have an advantage in this respect. It’s in the, sort of, in the middle of one’s life that things become a bit complicated with the family responsibilities: husbands, wives, jobs, kids and so on. But if inspired of that is sort of the let’s say two or three family members: a mother, father, the children understand each other, it is possible to progress on this, sort of, way… It can go smoothly, if there is, sort of, understanding between the family members. So, for example, the father might be meditating and the others cooperate by not making noise and disturbing him. Similarly when the mother takes her turn to meditate she also gets the same treatment… So then it becomes, sort of, balanced and it’s possible to progress in the lay life. You can find this in Samyutta Nikāya in the Nākulapitu sutta (Khandha Vagga, 21 - Khandha Samyutta #1: SN or SN XXII.1). So members Nākula’s father and mother had developed the equal degree and in balance these faculties of sīla/virtue, saddhā/confidence, learning/Dhamma-sutta, cāga/generosity, and wisdom. So because of these developments and balance of faculties both of them… both of them were sakadāgāmīs/once-returners - the second fruit… And they were born after death in the Tusita deva realm. So persons called Migāra’s father and father’s younger brother, who were, sort of, the make up artists of the king Kosala, were meditators, though they were householders, with this job, but they had only very few problems and obstacles to their progress. So their job, the responsibilities they had, was to, sort of, apply make up and make the wives of the king beautiful and, sort of, dress them up and place them on the backs of the elephants. So they said, they had three problems, they claimed they had three problems, whereas other people had only two. So the Buddha asked: “What are the problems?” This is in the Thapati (Chamberlains) sutta in Samyutta Nikāya (Mahā Vagga,  54 - Sotāpatti Samyutta #6: SN 11.1.6 or SN LV.6).  … “We have to look after the elephants, we have to protect the princesses and, more than that, we have to look after our minds...” Aah… “The princesses are so soft, so delicate and so sweet smelling like devas…” so very soft and delicate and they have to be protected… So the obstacle for them was that at the moment of placing, like a, almost like a relic, they have to lift up these princesses and to place them on the back of the elephant and they are so soft and delicate, at that moment if a thought of desire and lust arose in their minds, then the elephant will go wild, will be agitated, the princesses will get agitated and they will be finished. So this was the third obstacle.

 George: “It’s a direct link to my perception and feeling problem, you know, because there is a tribe in Africa, they have to learn for a very long time before they go hunting elephants, not to think about elephants while they are hunting.
  Komi: “I said (to LH), that the king also had a lot of trust because of the job, but Loku Hāmuduru says, they were sakadāgāmīs…
  So they would have been chosen for that, because of their saddhā and development in the Dhamma… In other instance, he says, that there are white-clad lay people for whom the path is not difficult, it is this one category of people. So there is no need to fear and one should not stop making effort to walk the path. So… it is not to, sort of flatter anyone, but the journey, so far, has been fruitful and then keep going. So whatever obstacles we have: it may be family, wealth, jobs, responsibilities, beauties and other problems which come up sometimes and overtake your life, but then after a while they get resolved; so we have all experienced that kind of thing…

  [Ven. Dhammarakkhita later on Shaming read the sutta]
  Despite their obstacles, that they had in their lives and with regard to the responsibilities, they were able to… This would relate to the anattha kusala - what takes you away from the wholesomeness. So this discussion falls within this aspect [anattha kusala] , as we said earlier. The one that was to do with obstacles to the path - and this would also be considered as a part of that [anattha kusala]. So, sometimes, the duties of running a center like this also can become an obstacle, like that. Facilities have been created here, and those who come, they must use their wisdom, their intelligence and use these facilities for their benefit. That is all that is required. If they use their requisites wisely, then because, for whatever, the obstacles are less here then elsewhere, so they can use it as a base for their progress. I remember in other places, even in Colombo, we had a major water problem. If there too many yogis – meditators, then sometimes we had not enough water to bath. There were never problems with food and drink, wherever I went, but there have been some problems with water. Even next door there was a water problem and I had a very big well dug up and at that time I had to listen to some criticism: “Are you trying to give water to whole the village?” But we were able to give water for everybody (I guess in the center ). So here, we will not have a water problem at all, the way it is done also this I considered to lessen obstacles. The well water here is even more pure than that you could get in bottled water bottles, it is enough water to bath, eat, drink, cook … and you can use it without fear. There is one well just for watering trees and plants. So it has been constructed to minimize the obstacles. So there is also this rule about 'not feeding animals here', this is also in order to lessen the obstacles to meditators. Even they [the animals :-) ] can find food to eat. Actually in these grounds there are more birds and squirrels than in other places. We don’t feed them [ ...]. Yes, if we, sort of, use our facilities like toilets and so on, cleanly and in a hygienic manner, then we can normalize diseases born of mosquitoes and so on... So we have this responsibility to, sort of, minimize our own obstacles, sort of, maximize the use of the facilities here.
 So sometime back, there was a lady here, who wanted … tried to teach me something about compassion and said that there was this little mouse in her kuti, that was looking at her in very kind manner, and that this mouse had a lot of compassion… So I asked her: “Is it to contemplate the look on a mouse's face, that you gave up all and came here?” She didn’t say anything – if she had said anything more, I would have chased her away.
  So this is the way I act. I consider that there are no obstacles here. And what should we be doing is to minimize the obstacles and walk the path. There is a place for meditation. There is a place to consult books, to refer books and also to do the daily observances. There is a place to go and have our news without problems. There is a place to practice walking meditation. Also the ladies have an area for themselves, if they wish, in the upāsikārāma. You can make use of these facilities and lead a good life. So when that, sort of, breaks down or some people do things to disrupt the smooth functioning of this, I don’t like. Because of one person, there should not be problems for seven or eight people, then it becomes anattha kusala sort of thing. We may even consider that these people haven’t learned the true meaning of the Karanīya mettā sutta.

Reflections on the Karanīya mettā sutta  
(Part 3)

The third discourse

  So the first means of acquiring knowledge is by listening. In those days it was not by reading, but by listening. That was the way first to become acquainted with the Buddhas teaching and so on. And then, after that, one is expected to bear it in mind dhāramī… There was reading and writing but in the majority of cases it would be by listening, that one was exposed to the Dhamma… It is when we don’t retain it in our minds, what has been heard, that we are not able to recall and, sort of, give a summary of the next day.

...Sakko, ujū ca sūjū ca,  suvaco cassa mudu anatimānī… 
 Sakko, ujū ca sūjū ca… all what we have discussed before with regard to sīla, has been said completely. If there is something more to be said, it would be with regard to the virtue pertaining to bodily action and speech… He (LH) would like us to reflect from what we have learned earlier about the four types of restraint and what is, sort of, relevant to the mind, in particular to the mind… So it is very important, that the ājīva pārisuddha, that is purity of livelihood is established. That is what is… sort of … the mind … connected with the mind foremost, because he says, that sometimes it is possible to do, you know, a wholesome thing, but with the wrong intention, with wrong motivation - with cunning, with, sort of, a wish to perform or to show others what one is doing… That is… actually, this person is not deceiving others. He is deceiving himself, if he is doing it with the wrong motivation. This is, this aspect of purity of livelihood, what is connected with the mind. At times it is possible, that a monk may go on pindapāta/alms round because he is displeased with the set up… Sometimes maybe because of some mental illness they will go… At times it has happened, that some monk, who got angry with the rest of the monks, said: “No, I don’t want to eat here and I will go on alms round with my bowl.”  ... if purity of livelihood is properly done, undertaken, then this practice of alms round is taken with the idea that it helps us to attain nibbāna. 

Even for the householder it is this purity of livelihood, which.. which will have an important role… So even in the case of a householder, a lay person, who, say, is going for a job, government job, so he waits for his leave, his holiday to come and meditate: so there are other things he might be doing in that time, but he devotes, decides to devote his time, this holiday time, to practice, doing practice of meditation. So that is also this purity of livelihood…

 Ven. Dhammarakkhita: “So the word sakko means, that the duties he has to perform very big or small, he has to be clever… in whatever he has to do… all the duties.  Komi: “Skilled?”  Some people are skilled to do small jobs and they can’t do big jobs; some people can do big … duties, big things and can’t do small things… So then one part is lacking… So then we have to clearly understand, what are the big duties and what are the small duties… As a yogi he must be able to do big things as well as small things in a clever manner… We are going to discuss in detail what are these big/deep things and small things… Some people think, that sweeping, cleaning, helping others, dying robes, preparing bowls, doing Buddha-pūja chanting – these things are small things and meditating/meditation, learning, giving advice to others for meditation, such things are big things… Some people… All these things are OK… Good… But Lord Buddha’s explanation, idea is a little bit different regarding this matter. Without the eight fold path we can’t go towards nibbāna for this eight fold path we … we are introducing another word, that is the brahmacariya: the word brahmacariya is also used for the eight-fold path. So in this, life, in this yogi life, there are eight things, or eight steps. Eight things coming to become a practice… Sammā  ditthi/right view… Sammā samādhi/right concentration… yes, yesterday we talked about what we should do and should not do… Also attha kusala and anattha kusala… that is:  what we have to do and not to do… And all these things we talked with virtue, with sīla… Now the eight fold path starts with right view, for the eight fold path right view means the knowledge about dukkha, samudaya, nirodha, magga or the suffering, cause, cessation and the way leading to the cessation of suffering. 

Whatever… when one is practicing this eight fold path, minor jobs or big jobs or whatever you are doing: when you are performing the jobs the eight fold path should be developed within that action, even a blinking of an eye, or even sweeping… Whatever small thing or big thing – that should be used to develop the eight fold path. For a yogi even in a blinking he sees dukkha and cause of dukkha or suffering and cause of suffering. Even in a word, he expresses, within that word he realizes one of these four: dukkha or cause of dukkha or cessation or path, one of these four things he can realize through even… from one word… So he has to be clever to work within the eight fold path, whatever he is doing he is always within the eightfold path… within the dukkha and samudaya ; probably… When a yogi is doing sweeping, preaching, dying robes, preparing bowls, or offering dāna, or listening or accepting dāna, or eating dāna, teaching, studying, giving meditation instruction – whatever thing he is doing, he has to have understanding about the four noble truths, at least two noble truths: dukkha or cause of dukkha, that means he is always within the eight fold path. 

So our level is very much lesser/insufficient than the level Karanīya mettā sutta (Sn 1.8 & Khp 9) expects it to be. It is we, we are in the garden(?)… So in deep meaning sakko means clever in the eight fold path, or the noble four truths, but in superficial way also clever in all the activities, in performing all the duties - he has to be clever in that duties. This explanations are available in the Vibhanga prakarana [?] a in Abhidhamma pitaka; there is another book called Nittika karana [?], in that book also… All the gāthas (in Dhammapada) contain some of the four noble truths, some gāthas contain one noble truth, some two noble truths, some all four… Now when we consider this gātha: “Appamādo amatapadam pamādo maccuno padam …” (the first stanza in Pamāda vagga, Dhp 23) This gātha has all these four noble truths… This gātha, this: “Mano pubbangamā dhammā…” That is the very first gātha (of Dhammapada, Dhp 1), it explains the second noble truth. When a bhikkhu is preaching Dhamma on this gātha, he has to realize this second noble truth properly. Some gāthas explain only about the noble eight fold path… This word sakko explains the fourth noble truth - the noble eight fold path. Sakko means normally ‘clever one’… sometimes, some other gāthas explain the three characteristics anicca, dukkha, anattā and some other gāthas mainly explain the four noble truths, sometimes four, sometimes two, etc… 

So all, all the gāthas explain the fourth noble truth or the first noble truth, or the second noble truth, that way… The third noble truth… etc. … If one understands one gātha properly, he understands the four noble truths… This is for the Dhamma-preachers: when they finish Dhamma-preaching, either one noble truth or two noble truths and so on, he has to finish his Dhamma-discourse with. Nowadays people praise some Dhamma-preachings, but although these preachings are very pleasant to listen to, none of the four noble truths may be included there. People, who know, who know Dhamma, they listen to very small part of the preaching, not the whole thing… Even if the Dhamma-preaching satisfied one, at the end of the preaching, but one forgot all the preaching after the finish of the Dhamma-talk, then that Dhamma-preaching was not correct. But after listening to the Dhamma, if the listener gets thoughts about that, thinks about that, then that Dhamma-preaching was successful. Through this Dhamma-preaching if the listener can get at least a small thing to adjust his life, then this Dhamma-preaching is successful. That means, that in that Dhamma-preaching there was something explained about noble truths. That means, if there is an influence to the listener, that means, he has listened properly also. So he practices to some extent according to the listening, what he listened to. 

So that’s why it is said, that preaching and listening is also important or even essential to develop for the developing the path. At the beginning of the eight fold path this sakko or this kind of cleverness is essential. Sometimes in very small things he can grasp all the four noble truths and sometimes about very big jobs or things only one or two noble truths are available there. So in this Karanīya mettā sutta Lord Buddha explained this idea, this word explains this idea. Even if we go for dāna or we sweep, or we clean the toilet. Whatever we are doing, we have to have an understanding about the four noble truths, one of the … and so on. At least one noble truth we have to identify in our jobs. If one is living in the aranas, then it is easy to understand these things. But here yogis are living a very comfortable life, luxurious life, so for them it is not easy to understand the four noble truths. This center is good for well-experienced yogis to practice further, but not for the beginners. Unlike aranas this center is not strong[harsh] enough to realize the four noble truths. Anyway meditation here is not developed properly according to the Karanīya mettā sutta: if it’s in a proper way, then it is like a person who has fire on his head: also as an example when there is a dry forest, even a very small fire can make a very big fast raging inferno, same way if yogis are very well they have to work very… with much more energy than now.

 Now, forest fire sometimes spreads very very quickly. Sometimes, because of a cigarette, one can create a forest fire. So, LH also knows about this thing: in an area called ‘Blue mountain’, when he was living there, somebody explained to him that young people come here and they use these cigarettes and because of them big forest fires come up. Some people are purposely doing forest fires.
 When one realizes the meditation properly, he is also like this forest fire, his development is very fast. Night and day he meditates. He is very fast, his development is very fast.

Ujū ca
 Now we are going to talk about ujū ca. Ujū here means, here has two meanings: in general context we say ujū means honest and straightforward. But when we look at the deep meaning, it means all the components of the noble eight fold path, work in harmony, in balance, that is the real meaning of the ujū or straight. Whatever he does, says or things – all these things are included in the noble eight fold path. All his physical and vocal actions are very straightforward, not crooked, no any kind of crookedness in the life. Talk, when he is talking or his physical action – all these things are directed towards nibbāna, no any kind of dishonesty or crookedness: This crookedness - there are two similes… Loku Hāmuduru explained them earlier… One simile is like… moon… some days… aah: a crescent moon… one should not be like a crescent moon. And the other one is like the crookedness of a plough. So all these kinds of crookednesses are not there when one has this ujū, ujū ca… Yes, all … all these things are very much connected to each other: sīla and this cleverness sakko and this ujū… straight or honest.

Sūjū ca
 Next sūjū ca, more honest, or more straightforward or more… Now all his activities are very much within the noble eight fold path: sakko means a person… when we are talking about these qualities… these things may be with jhānas, when one possesses jhānas, he has these three qualities: sakko, ujū ca, sūjū ca. When he is a sūjū ca, that means he is very very close to nibbāna. So the reality is much more different then we think. Even in normal situation, normal worldly conditions, also these things have their own practical aspect, even an average person should be a clever one in day to day affairs and a straightforward one and a honest one. When LH was at ‘Blue mountain’ ten people came to meditate for ten days, so one person was appointed to do all the jobs in the center. So one person is appointed to do the cooking, and treating others, washing, cleaning, all these things; one person does. And he also meditates for five hours. Next day another person… That way...  So that everybody gets nine days… nine days everybody can meditate very properly. After ten days, then the next group of ten people comes to meditate, these ten days also the same way as before. So it is a very good method. Here some yogis are very careless, sometimes they don’t clean anything, they put spoons into the dustbin also. We see the yogis are not developed up to the level of this meditation center: so if he is a sakko – if he is a clever one – he doesn’t do such kind of mistakes. But these things are not easy to correct.

 Now suvaca... Suvaca means ‘obedient, very obedient’: this obedience is always with good qualities, he is obedient to develop good qualities: he doesn’t agree with unwholesome things. Although he is obedient he never agrees with unwholesome performances: because he has achieved a good knowledge about the eight fold path and the four noble truths. So his obedience always tends to develop the noble eight fold path, not otherwise, not opposed to the eight fold path. So true obedience here means that he is always obedient to develop the noble eight fold path and not obedient to harm or go otherwise off the noble eight fold path. He cannot be misused by others: for them it is not possible to give any wrong view to his head… Yes, so for unwholesome aspect he is not obedient… Yes… and this suvaca person is able to associate with anybody else also, anybody else can associate with suvaca one… Young or old… anybody. Sometimes somebody might think he is like a small child, because his thinking and work is very simple, so other people think: “This person can be used for our work, our jobs.” Or think to misuse him, but it is not so – it is not possible to use him for bad things. So that is the nature of suvaca. It is also not possible for others to deceive him, but other people may think he has been deceived, but it is not possible to deceive him – yes, other people may think: “He is been cheated.” But it is not so. One who is going to cheat him, is the one who is cheated, that is the nature of suvaca one or the obedient one.

 Next good quality mudu means ‘soft’… Is soft… All these qualities come up because of the practice of the noble eightfold path. Good qualities arise because of the practice of the noble eight fold path. If one is not engaging the noble eightfold path properly, all these qualities are not within his mind or his life. Here softness means like the very high quality gold is possible to use for any work, for any kind of ornament, we can create or make from it, from the very high quality gold. This mudu or softness is also like that. His physical actions and vocal actions and metal actions – all these actions are very soft/gentle/mild… Yes, all this softness comes up because of the noble eight fold path. There are two names for the Buddha Thāma and Thāmavara, because Lord Buddha is a very soft one, even a small child can associate with Sammā Sambuddha and very great people also can associate with Sammā Sambuddha. If one becomes… this soft one when, at certain point, he becomes hard, so it is very difficult to change the situation. After that point even if hundreds and thousands of people want to change him, it is not easy to change him. This is the nature of the soft one: this Ālavaka's story, Ālavaka sutta ( Sagātha Vagga, 10 - Yakkha Samyutta #12:  SN 10.1.12 or SN X.12; and Sn 1.10) explains this: [What follows here is an almost word-by-word citation from the sutta itself]
 At one time the auspicious one was dwelling near Ālavī in the domicile of the yakkha Ālavaka, then the yakkha Ālavaka approached the auspicious one and after approaching he said to the auspicious one: “Get out, ascetic!” “Yes, friend.” Said the auspicious one and he got out. “Go in, ascetic!” “Yes, friend.” Said the auspicious one and he went in. For a second time the yakkha Ālavaka said this to the auspicious one: “Get out, ascetic!” “Yes, friend.” Said the auspicious one and he got out. “Go in, ascetic!” “Yes, friend.” Said the auspicious one and he went in. For the third time the yakkha Ālavaka said this to the auspicious one: “Get out, ascetic!” “Yes, friend.” Said the auspicious one and he got out. “Go in, ascetic!” “Yes, friend.” Said the auspicious one and he went in. For a fourth time the yakkha Ālavaka said this to the auspicious one: “Get out, ascetic!” “I certainly will not get out, friend, so please do whatever it is you must do.” “I will ask you a question, ascetic, and if you do not answer me, I will over through your mind or split your heart or seize you by the feet and throw you across the river.” “I certainly do not see, friend, in the world with it’s gods, Māra and Brahma, in this generation with its ascetics and brahmins and princes and men, anyone, who could overthrow my mind or split my mind or seize me by the feet and throw me across the river. Still you may ask what you want, friend.” Then the yakkha Ālavaka recited a verse to the auspicious one: “What is the greatest wealth for a person here,   what, when accomplished, brings about happiness,   what for sure is the sweetest of tastes,   living what life, do they say, is the greatest?” 

“Confidence is a persons greatest wealth here,   the Dhamma, when accomplished, brings about happiness,   truth, for sure, is the sweetest of tastes,   living a wise live, they say, is the greatest.” “How does one cross over the flood?   How does one cross over the sea?   How does one overcome suffering?   How does one become purified?” “Through confidence one crosses the flood,   through heedfulness one crosses the sea,   through energy one overcomes suffering,   through wisdom one is purified.” “How is it, one attains to wisdom?   How is it one finds true wealth?   How does one acquire good repute?   How does one bind friends to oneself?   How, after passing from this world to the next world, does one not grief?”  “Confident in the worthy one,   a worthy ones Dhamma taught for the attaining nibbāna… one gains wisdom through actually wanting to hear it,   heedfulness…” 
 (LH): Read it later!
 If this 'soft one' becomes hardened at a time, so after that it is very difficult to make him again soft. So, to melt or to soften this one, other should be soft. Then this one is possible to make soft again. Aah.. This softness is not possible for others to misuse, but that doesn’t … If anybody else asks to do some work, he will do it. But he won’t do everything according to others wish. No, when we ask to do something, he will do it, but if we think, that: “I am going to use this person for my job.” If that one understands this thing, then after that he won’t work. So after that others can’t use, can't get any help from him. So this is the meaning here: Soft, softness. Now according to the Ālavaka sutta, Lord Buddha was very flexible to the world of Ālavaka three times, but the fourth time Lord Buddha said, you or anybody else can not shake me… Yes, Ālavaka said (to himself) before: “I can make him tired this way: asking ‘come in, come out’ and so on… That way I can make this ascetic tired.” But after the third time Lord Buddha said: “OK, do you whatever you can do, but I don’t see anybody else in the world who can shake me.” This softness comes up because of the noble eight-fold path, but he understands, that anybody else is going to misuse his softness, then he is not soft any more. Afterwards others can’t get any use from him or his knowledge of the noble eight fold path and so on…

 So when he comes to this level, he is quite a mature one in the noble eightfold path: then the next quality is anatimānī. Anatimānī means humbleness. Here humble means not poor, not weak people; not helpless, poor. Such people are not counted under this anatimānī, or humble here. Humble here has a different meaning. There are helpless people in the world, like beggars… At the tsunami time many people became helpless people. In that group there are innocent people, there is a slight difference in between an innocent one and a helpless one. Sometimes this innocent one has wealth, he could even fight with others and he could do whatever he likes. But he is the innocent one, that is he doesn’t do any of these things - such person we call an innocent person. But this anatimānī, the humble one, is not included in either of these. None of them are humble ones, but these innocent ones and helpless ones can get a lot of benefit from the humble one: even a king can get a lot of benefit from this humble one: even a beggar or a king – anybody, can get help or benefits from the humble one. Same as, the earlier one, that soft one, same way this humble one is also not possible to be misused by others. No conceit… Humble means no conceit. There are three kinds of conceit: māna, adhimāna and atimāna. Māna means conceit. Adhimāna means...great conceit [this is an upakkilesa], Atimāna means very high conceit... more conceit [superiority complex]. These adhimāna and atimāna.... :-( ...this adhimāna can come only to a meditator, good meditator, not a bad meditator, only to a good meditator adhimāna can come... These yogis here, they don’t get adhimāna... [everybody starts laughing].
 George: „If you don’t go into water, you can’t drawn.“
 LH: „That’s a good one.
 Ven. Dhammarakkhita: „Adhimāna means big māna.“
 Komi: „Like we are a little bit better then others because we have left our homes and whatever, and come here to meditate... You think so, what? ...
 ... And others are also the same... Adhimāna ... adhimāna comes only to very good meditators. If they reach at least up to sankhārā upekkhā ñāna level, then they start to see, you know, other people: „Oh, poor people, they don’t understand anything.“ And also the quality of adhimāna is that he tries to explain Dhamma to the others, and one who is participating in meditation courses continually, he also can get this kind of adhimāna: some people are saying: „Ai yoo, what are these people doing? They are just sweeping, preaching... doing unnecessary things.“ When one is saying these words, Loku Hāmuduru understands he has adhimāna, kind of adhimāna. So these things happen to good meditators only. All these good yogis get this state, get these kind of things as George said: „If one doesn’t jump into the water, he won’t sink ever.“ After overcoming adhimāna and all other types of māna, he can become a humble one, be a humble one. Then with situation we call this anatimānika... Suvaco cassa, mudu, anatimānī... anatimānī is that. The real meditator or the real yogi is a very very strange person. For this particular yogi he knows many things are happening outside in the world, but because of this outside happenings, nothing builds up withing him... There are various types of yogis: When we think about a good yogi, when he goes to the dining hall, if there are not enough plates and other things, he silently brings the plates and keep suitable place, and he does all the work without uttering a word, without showing anything artificial. But there are other yogis also, when they see this kind of thing, they think: „Oh, there are not enough plates, these people they don’t keep these things, nobody is looking after these.“ Like that, he is doing something artificial: so then we can understand, this yogi is not developed enough and other one is a developed yogi. In a good yogi everything happens in a kind, silent manner. But he has done everything, because he has that base – all that we talked about before: Sakko, ujū ca sūjū ca... And so on. Because of this outside happenings doesn’t have any influence to his inner development. This is the nature of anatimānī or humble one. I (LH) explain these things because we all are meditators.

Reflections on the Karanīya mettā sutta  
(Part 4)

The fourth discourse

[ ...Santussako ca subharo ca, ~ appakicco ca sallahukavutti ... ]


  "Santussako" means contentment with whatever received. It's a great inheritance to a yogi - contentment with whatever is available. Because he gets quickly an understanding of tilakkhana, if he is a contented one.Lord Buddha very much appreciated this contentment. If one is easy to content with whatever is available, then he can live anywhere. The person, who is not content with what he receives, is controlled by three petas - hungry ghosts. There is no use of pouring water into the sea. No use of putting firewood into the fire. And one who is not content, for him there is no use of offering, giving him things. He is not possible to make content. So a discontented person and a fire and the sea – are same - not possible to satisfy. Sometimes parents are tired of children. Sometimes teachers are tired of pupils. Once in the Anuraddhapura era a mother had one child, the mother was tired of this child. When there are whatever sweet things prepared by the mother, this child eats all these sweet things without leaving anything for others. Later on this child become a monk. So after long time the mother thought: 'Now my child is maybe not that way as earlier, because now he is a bhikkhu.' So the mother one day prepared, cooked this sweet, this particular sweet and she went to see this monk with this sweet.So the mother cooked lot of ... a big amount of sweets even for other monks and this child - bhikkhu - without giving to any other bhikkhu, he ate all these things. So that day the mother got fed up with this child. Normally mothers are not fed up with children, but that day even this mother became fed up with this discontented child. The person who is discontented - nobody else likes him. As yogis we have to adjust our lives, it should be a contented life. Once a mother gave her child to his brother to ordain. This brother was also a monk. So this elder monk is the brother of this monk [to be] and she gave her child to this brother monk to ordain. Now this child is sixteen years old. So the mother said to his brother monk: “I like to see my child.”  So then this brother [the older one] said: “OK, I'll send him.” After some time this monk - elder monk - forgot it. Two times he forgot to send this child to the mother. So the mother complained to this brother monk: “Why don't you send my child, why don't you tell me where he is? So you have to send me my child.” The Mother was suspecting that the child might have died. So the elder monk - this brother monk – said: “OK, I'll bring him.” The mother and the father built a kuti for their child, their son. And they invited this child - this monk [the younger one] - to stay in that kuti for next vassa - next rain period. Then the elder monk brought the child, brought this monk and arranged for him to stay in that kuti. He brought the child to the parents and introduced him: "This is your son." That day the parents came to see the son and to talk with him and to offer things to him and then went back home. This child - now a matured man, was not like when he was renouncing household life. Now he was a big matured man, so the parents had a doubt whether he was their child or another one. They thought: "If he is our child he should call us 'mother' and 'father'. But he didn't call us that way. And he didn't tell anything what he needs." And afterwards the parents went to the old monk - the brother monk - and asked whether he was really their son. Then he said: "Yes, yes, he is your son." Anyway the parents treated him well in this three rain months. But during this three months period the child monk never talked to the mother, didn't tell anything to them, he just meditated. And after vassa he left the place. And the mother and the father offered a robe also, some cloth for a robe for the child. And some medicinal oil also. And this child monk offered these things to the elder monk and left the place. So the mother and the father came to the elder monk and blamed him: "We can't identify our child. We don't know whether he is really our child or another one." So they again asked. "We need our child, we need our monk." They wanted to see him. But this old monk said: "He is your child." But parents - they didn't accept that. So this elder monk went to the place where this son monk had gone to and brought him back. And asked this monk to explain the story. So then the child monk explained everything to the parents. So he explained about his contentment.He explained to the parents that if he had acted like their son they would have gotten merits only because of treating their child. But now, as he had acted as a normal monk, then the parents got merits the same as for treating the Sangha or a bhikkhu. "Because I wanted to give them more merits, I acted as a normal monk, not like their son." This monk started to explain the value of contentment. So after listening to the discourse of their son the mother and the father got great happiness. They said that Lord Buddha preached this Ariyavamsa sutta ( AN IV.28,The Discourse on the Traditions of the Noble Ones ), one sutta; Tuvataka sutta ( Sn IV.14, 'Quickly'), Nālaka sutta ( Sn III.11, 'To Nālaka' ) - these things Lord Buddha preached for this kind of bhikkhus. So saying this thing the mother and the father became very happy and later on they got path knowledges also. Anyway this story explains the value of contentment. Whatever we get, we have to be contented with that.

 I have lived thirty years in Kanduboda. During this thirty years period I have never asked anything from the committee or from the Nāyaka Hāmuduru, I have not asked anything from them. Even a stamp I have not asked. Even medicine I have not asked. Even bhikkhu a coupon, for a bus-coupon I did not ask. I went home and asked from my parents. I asked from my mother or my elder sister. I explained them: 'I need stamps, I need bhikkhu coupons, I need medicine.' That's all. I didn't ask anything from the dāyakas. That is the way I behaved those days. I was afraid of leeches those days. Even now I am afraid of leaches. Once I went to the famous cave Batapotalena near Kuruvita. That was in nineteen eighty. At that day there was a heavy rain there. And I lost a path also. And lots of leeches hang on me. I was afraid and I didn't like to touch the leech by my hand. And I shook my leg in order to throw the leech away. But none of the leeches dropped off. So I allowed them to take the blood. But after some time some people came and they applied some soap or something, they removed the leeches. Because I'm shaking the leg, the knee problem came. The knee dislocated. When I came back to the meditation center, the knee was swollen. So people here brought me to the doctor at Gampaha. Then that doctor treated me. And for the car ( to bring me from here to the doctor ) fifteen rupees was the cost. Other than that I have not taken anything from the meditation center. That is my principle. Whatever I receive, I give to the center. Even the Tipitaka from my father I offered to the center. That was a mistake. Those days I had a name  - I was called Vessantara [see the very last Jtk 547 ]. So those days I liked  to travel whenever I need so I don't gather any goods or anything.To have a simple life I kept only robes and very few things with me. This is something one should practice in his life. Those days I had no permanent place to sleep. 1987 I left that place, up to that day I didn't have permanent place to sleep or stay. Some days I had slept in the dāna sālāva also. Sometimes I had to go to far places for Dhamma preaching. When I came back the gate had been closed. So I had to sleep in the dāna sālāva – the dining hall. So such days wherever I got to, I slept. Sometimes behind the Nāyaka Hāmuduru's kuti, I slept there also. So the Nāyaka Hāmuduru asked on such days: 'Why are you sleeping here?' 'Because it's easy for me.' I lived in Blue Mountains without heaters. Then I had to suffer kind of sickness ??...? problem, so I left Australia and came back to Sri Lanka. Those days there was about one foot thick snow cover on the roof. And the roof also became very very cold. These roofs had been built with kind of grass. The walls, wooden walls. So it was very difficult to live in such a place. Some days I sat on normal ground. The towel I used to sleep on, still I'm using for my bed here, the same towel I am using.
 David: "Blanket ?"
 LH: "It's not really a blanket, it's, kind of, a big towel. When one is used to doing these things then it becomes very easy. I learned these things from two monks. One monk was the German Ñānavimala bhante, the next one Dhammadasi bhante. This Ñānavimala bhante also used very few things. Dhammadasi Hāmuduru / bhante also used very few items.
 So these things are things which are possible to practice in the life. Everybody should try to practice these things even up to a certain extent. Contentment. My teacher at the beginning lived in a very small takaran hut - tent, small tent. Sometimes I was surprised how he is living in this small hut. And the roof of the hut was also not very good. When rain came, water came into the kuti. And afterwards other people few times invited him to come to a more comfortable place. That kuti was situated at the same place where now the sīmā is. Loku Hāmuduru has a picture of this kuti also. This kuti also - when rain came, water came inside. So rainy days he brought spittoons and kept it them where water dropped, fell. Few spittoons he kept inside the kuti to collect the water. One day, one dāyaka - his name was Polgasovita mahatthaya - he saw all these things and he built this new building, new kuti. Because this kuti, this newly built kuti was always used by other lay people also, they also always came inside. So this Polgasovita mahatthaya wanted to offer this as a Sānghika dāna. But because lay people also used this thing, he offered only the roof to Sangha, now - normal way. So because this is Sānghika roof, nobody else can do any adjustment or whatever without consent, without permission from the Sangha. ...So this... also our Nāyaka Hāmuduru for sixty five years lived with contentment. He did not accept food brought to him. He also always used to go on an alms-round. 

So all these things we can count as contentment. Because of these qualities all other qualities which are helpful to develop meditation, these qualities develop. Craving and aversion quickly reduce. Subside even while  you watch. That's why Lord Buddha explained all this good qualities in the Karanīya mettā sutta (Sn 1.8 & Khp 9). Even for lay yogis, if they have very few items, they use very few things, it is very helpful to develop their meditation. Less number of clothes but very clean. And this clothes also must be simple and easy to use. Sometimes today the things yogis bring here are bigger then himself. So then the yogi has to pay a lot of attention to protect and keep these things. This is not easy to change -  because I say others can't change their styles at once. Sometimes ... when we come to meditation center, we think to bring whatever is in the house - all the things here also. So the kuti is also not enough for him. It's a weakness in a yogi. If he is a good yogi, he has to have very minimum number of things with him. But of course one has to have things he needs for day-to-day life. Some yogis here, they bring makeups, things to do makeups they also bring. Yes. All sort of such things some yogis have. Some yogis even bring hair dye.

 "Subhara", the next good quality is subhara. Subhara means easy to sustain. If one is a subhara one or easy to sustain one, then for the  dāyakas it is very easy to help him. Or for a mother and a father it is very easy to help such a child. The opposite side of subhara is - we call 'pragalba'. Subhara means very easy to sustain him. That means kind of weightlessness. Such kind of people, even a hundred or two hundreds are not difficult to sustain. Only if such a one becomes sick, then only one has to look after him, otherwise there is no need to look after him. Such a person who is subhara, who is weightless, he can live even with very poor people. Or in a village where there are very poor people, he can live even in such a  village very happily.
 Once there was a person from ... he was a Christian, he was this kind of a father [that is a priest] or somebody like that. One of them came and got ordination from Nāyaka Hāmuduru. He was, kind of, a church organizer or church manager. He was doing all sort of administrative things in Church. Anyway he became a bhikkhu. He lived in a forest called Badagiriya galle. Badagiriya - that is the area. His name was Dhammapāla, Katuniriya Dhammapāla. He was a person very easy to sustain by others, he lived in a very poor village. He used pamsukūla robes, that means clothes people had thrown away, he collected these clothes and he prepared robes out of these clothes. When he brought this clothes to me, I helped him to prepare robes. Even the animals in the forest became friendly with him. Also the people in the village – it was very easy for them to help this monk. And sometimes he lived with an elephant together. The elephant also used to sleep very close to him, when he [the monk] also slept ... So his toilet was little far away from his cave, sometimes he asked the elephant: "Go aside for me to go to the toilet. Give me a little room to go." Because the elephant blocked the path. That much this elephant was friendly with him. Also a group of monkeys there was friendly with him. Then group of deer also. When he went to bring - fetch water, a big monkey also came with him. When he brought the water bucket, this monkey also helped him to bring the water bucket. After he became a very old monk, eighty years old monk, he came back to the meditation center here. When he became very old, his relatives came and brought him back to his village. When I was in Colombo, I took some Loku Hāmuduru's pupils and Loku Hāmuduru showed them  this monk. He used to sleep in a coffin. ...Dhammapāla... Some of the Dhamma-books, he could cite... he remembered whole books, in his mind - everything was there. And he converted some of his children to Buddhism. So he used to go very far, he used to go for alms sometimes eight miles away from his place. He went to distant villages and ate there and preached Dhamma to the people there and in the evening he came back to his kuti.
 Another bhikkhu named Kondañña was also the same type of monk. He was as a layman a very rich person. He gave up all his wealth and got the ordination. Because of a challenge he became a monk. Those days I used to go alms-round and when I was going alms-round one day I met him. Those days he was a layman. And he wore a lot of gold things, jewelery. So he saw me going pindapāta and doing all this time kind of ascetics practices, he saw one day. So he said that one day: "It's very good, Podi Hāmuduru, can I also do this?" Then I said: "For you ... in this life you can't do this thing ever." Then he pointed out his finger and said: "You think that way about me?" Then I (LH) said: "Yes, yes, I think that way." and I also said: "Because of your heavy body, because of your lot of gold and lot of land and lot of wealth you can't do this kind of practice ever. So there is no use in talking about ... you can't ever give up all these things."So after that incident I also forgot all those things. Whenever he visited Anuraddhapura, he also asked me to come. I associated with him afterwards also but he didn't say anything about getting ordination. But suddenly unknowingly he became a bhikkhu. He got ordination from Hinakiyana Dhammaloka Thera monk those days. Because this monk was a relative of his. After he got his ordination he quickly came to meet me. He told me: "You said I can't give up all these things but I could give up all these things and became a monk." So I said: "Oh good, I am very happy."  Then I said: "Yes, it is very good you became a monk but you can't go alms-round and you can't live in a forest."After several days I came to know he started to going on alms-round. Yes, he goes alms-round and with that food he does various kinds of offerings – Buddha-pūjas also. So one day he told me: "Two things, you said I can't do, now I am doing!" I said: "Very good! Anyhow you can't live in a forest." I said: "You are always with ... monks, all your relatives, you can't live in forest like us!"So suddenly  he disappeared. Everybody started to search for him, where he is. His children searching, relatives searching for him, he suddenly disappeared. Now this area is an LTTE area. Those days there was no LTTE problem. So he went to the forest in that area and lived in a cave there. A leopard also lived in the same cave. His children put out a newspaper advertisement: 'If anybody finds him, let us know!' Later on they found that he was living there. His children came to Nāyaka Hāmuduru and said: "Only Gampaha hāmuduru [that is LH] can bring him back here. If he doesn't come back, we all go to the Catholic religion. If he doesn't come back to Colombo here, we'll all change our religion." I thought it really could happen so I became frightened - all the wealth and everything they will transfer to the Christian religion if their father does not come back. So it's Polgasovita mahatthaya - Loku Hāmuduru's dāyaka - and with him Loku Hāmuduru went to see this monk. At once I met him, he asked: "You came because of my children asked you?" So he started to blame Loku Hāmuduru also. And afterwards he said: "You said I couldn't live in a forest, now I live in a forest." Also he said: " You go back, I don't come." So what Loku Hāmuduru did was, Loku Hāmuduru put all his things into the vehicle, other then bowl, and Loku Hāmuduru came back. So after few days he came back. Then he said: "Whatever you said I couldn't do I did. Now I am going to observe ascetics practices.” Loku Hāmuduru said OK. And afterwards he started to live in Kudumbigalla. Kudumbigalla is situated in the eastern end of Sri Lanka, sea area. Yala, eastern end of Yala national park. Then he said: "You should not come to see me. You should not come to bring me back." So I (LH) said: "No, no, I won't come." But I went one day. Not to bring him back. Just to see. Just to talk with him. For the midday meal that day I was offered only milk and viragedi – a very small fruit. Like ...?... small kind of fruit. So after eating these things I became intoxicated. But he was doing his walking meditation very well. So I said: "OK, very good," and after two days I came back. And afterwards because of JVP struggles - fights - he came back. Then his children built a kuti for him in their garden. Then he was living here in the the center and later on he went to that kuti built by his children. 

Those days he observed all the ascetics practices. But he was eighty years old. Before he passed away, just before he passed away, he has said only Loku Hāmuduru should come for his funeral and after doing this funeral performance his dead body should be given to the medical faculty. When this happened those days I was living in Melbourne, suddenly a thought came to my mind to come to Sri Lanka. So after coming from Australia I lived in Colombo and suddenly a thought came to my mind to go and see this bhikkhu.So I went to this Sunil. When I went there, children and the relatives - they handed over the body to Medical Faculty and they were coming back, when I was going there. Then I did the seventh day Dhamma-preaching, so I couldn't do his funeral performance as he wished, instead of that I did the seventh day Dhamma-preaching. He was a really developed person. Even because of his conceit he practiced good path. He did all these things because of the challenge with Loku Hāmuduru. Even because of challenge he practiced good things. Yes. If Loku Hāmuduru had said: "You can't do these things ever in this life," then because Loku Hāmuduru had said so, he would have accepted this challenge. So he maybe practiced up to the path knowledge. When I was in Colombo he time-to-time came to visit me. And when he came I had to stop all my work and I had to talk with him. So when I came to know he passed away I also felt a kind of sorrow. This person, this monk was really subhara – a simple monk. Very easy to sustain. The only things others should do for him - others should prepare him beetle nuts.And when he was a layman, he spent lot of money to teach meditation teachers, to create meditation teachers, train meditation teachers, he spent lot of money. Because of his help, this university called Buddhasavaka Dhammapitiya in Anuraddhapura - this could have been established because of his support. He got support of the politician called Iriyagolla those days and he could open this university only for bhikkhus. So he wanted to train meditation teachers also. He was ready to pay some money and provide all the food and other requisites also. This is the only thing he couldn't succeed, he couldn't do - that is meditation teachers programme. In this Polgasovita meditation center, still  there are some buildings which were built for this training programme - meditation teachers training programme. This programme did not succeed. Because not everybody lives a simple life.

 We have to do all these things, all these activities, duties - at the same time we have to have, kind of, renunciation. Because whatever we use today was not brought by ourselves. Because all these things we got after we were born in this life and one day we will have to give up all these things and have to go. When we were born from our mothers' wombs, we didn't have even a thread belonging to us. After our birth we acquired all these things. If one starts to think that way he doesn't start to gather things. When one starts to gather things, his good qualities start to diminish. But one who doesn't  gather things, such people are easy to sustain. They are contented with whatever they receive.

 Next is "appakicco" - this means  he has less number of jobs. Very less number of things he has to do.Few duties. Only preaching Dhamma. When the meditation center becomes bigger and bigger this quality is lost, vanishes, it is not possible to practice in such big centers. The next-door one – the other center, after passing away of Nāyaka Hāmuduru ... when Nāyaka Hāmuduru was living, he had few duties to do. His duty was looking after the yogis, instructing yogis. And for Sānghika dāna he preached a half-hour Dhamma discourse. Nothing else. All other jobs were given to other people. It is not dedicated, it just happened that way. Everybody was doing his own duties. So Nāyaka Hāmuduru had to do only preaching a half-hour Dhamma-talk and instruct the yogis. After passing away of Nāyaka Hāmuduru all the duties came onto my head. So five years I had to live - lead a very difficult life. Lot of work, no end. Even no time to sleep those days. So I thought: "When I was living in lay life, it was very simple relaxed life. Now it is completely different – a heavy life. I have to give up this life." Simple life finished and heavy life started. Like the chairman of the company, very difficult. At once I gave up everything.
 Question: "So how could venerable Sumathipāla have few duties and Loku Hāmuduru ends up with lot of duties at the same position?"
 Same day the second chief also passed away. So there were not enough people to do the things, not enough monks to look after the center. So I have to look after the foreign yogis and local yogis at the center - everything. Because the people, monks who were there when Nāyaka Hāmuduru was living, they left the place afterwards and also many bhikkhus left the place. While Nāyaka Hāmuduru was living he had sent some bhikkhus to other branches. So after that I gave up everything and I went to Myanmar. So I went to Myanmar and lived with venerable Pandita Sayado those days – in Mahāsi center.
 So we have to reduce our jobs, our work. Now I am ... garden and everything, but these things are not heavy things. These things are simple things. Day-to-day simple affairs not that much heavy duties. Appakicca - this word appakicca means few things to do. No responsibilities. Weightless lifestyle.

 Next one: “sallahukavutti”, the next good quality. The meaning of this word is - he uses very few items. This is a good quality. The opposite side is bahubandika. Bahubandika means - he uses lot of goods. At Lord Buddha's time one bhikkhu lived such a life. So one day he spread lot of robes everywhere. So Lord Buddha asked: "What is this? This is like a laundry!" Others said: "These are one bhikkhu's robes, things." So then Lord Buddha asked him to come. Then Lord Buddha explained simple ... value of simple life. Then Lord Buddha advised him to use few things. So he got very angry, he threw his robe out, without any robe he stood in front of Lord Buddha and said: "This is the way you asked me to live." Then at that time Lord Buddha preached this jātaka, Mahimsāsa jātaka [Jtk #6]. This is a long story.

 That birth, he [the naked bhikkhu] was a devil - a yakkha. The God Vessavana [one of the “Four Great kings”] gave him a kind of permission to eat people who don't know 'deva-dhamma'. 'Deva-dhamma' means lajja, bhaya - that means shame and fear. Shame of sin and fear of sin. People who don't know this thing, this devil can eat. People who knew, he couldn't eat. So three princes came to his jungle and this devil captured them. So out of these three princes the youngest one was captured by this devil. He asked what is the 'deva-dhamma'. He said 'deva-dhamma' means beds and chairs. So the devil said: "Oh, you don't know what is 'deva-dhamma'!" And took him for his meal. Not to eat him but to keep him aside for eating. So the next brother was going to find out about the younger one. So this devil captured this one also. He asked him also what is 'deva-dhamma'. And he said sun and moon. So the devil said: "You also don't know what is 'deva-dhamma'!" And kept him also as food. So next, the third one, the eldest one came, his name is Mahimsāsa, he is the Bodhisatta. So from him also the devil asked what is 'deva-dhamma'. So the Bodhisatta understood that this devil has captured his two younger brothers. So this Bodhisatta said: "Now I am very tired because of searching for my two brothers, so if you bathe me, if you feed me and treat me well, prepare good seat for me, then only I can preach you the 'deva-dhamma'. So the devil did the same way the Bodhisatta said and then said: "OK, now you teach me 'deva-dhamma'.” So the devil worshiped him and started to listen to 'deva-dhamma' from the Bodhisatta. So the Bodhisatta started to explain hiri, ottappa - that means shame of sin and fear of sin. When the Bodhisatta was explaining this Dhamma, the devil became very happy. Then the devil said: "OK, you ask whatever you like, I'll give you." Then the Bodhisatta said: "OK, give me the younger son, younger brother." Then yakkha, this devil said: "You don't have the 'deva-dhamma' within you! Because you ask younger brother. Because you should ask the elder brother." There is a long story behind this... This three sons were sons of the king. The king had two wives. After the first wife passed away, he married another queen. The youngest brother is the son of this later queen. So this queen wanted to give the throne to her son, not to the two elder sons. So she asked kingdom for her son. Then the king said to the two elder brothers: "You have to go to the forest, because the queen may harm you." So they had left the kingdom. While they were leaving the kingdom, the younger brother also came with them."When I will not take the younger brother now, the queen will think I killed her son. That's why I asked the younger brother." So the devil gave him both the brothers.

 Then Lord Buddha said: "This one, who is now standing in front of me without any clothes, he was the devil those days, who searched for the 'deva-dhamma'. Now he doesn't have any 'deva-dhamma'. Those days he had 'deva-dhamma' even as a devil. Now he is a bhikkhu, he doesn't have 'deva-dhamma'. So then Lord Buddha formed rules, Vinaya rules.

Reflections on the Karanīya mettā sutta  
(Part 5 - final)

The fifth discourse

[ ...Santindriyo ca nipako ca, ~ appagabbho kulesu ananugiddho.     Na ca khuddam samācare kiñci ~ yena viññū pare upavadeyyum.Sukhino vā khemino hontu, ~ sabbe sattā bhavantu sukhitattā! ... ]

  "Santindriyo ca nipako ca", we are starting from that verse of the Karanīya mettā sutta (Sn 1.8 & Khp 9) now. Santindriya refers to the restraint of the senses and nipaka is another word which is synonymous or is used for wisdom - paññā. Restraint of the senses is meant by santindriya. This restraint of the senses has taken place not from samatha practice - tranquility meditation, but from insight practice - vipassanā. This person is not - you don't have to force them to be calm and collected, it happens quite naturally. So one of the good characteristics of vipassanā bhāvanā - meditation - is that this calmness arises quite naturally.

 So the daughter of Anāthapindika - the chief lay disciple, benefactor - was married or given to a person who was deep in micchā ditthi - wrong view, this kind of faith. So she used to participate ... in that household, in husband's household they used to give lot of alms - dāna to the Nigantha monks and she used to participate and help in the preparation of meals but she would not serve them. So the parents in law were upset about this. She would not serve. So then they asked her: "Why is it that you don't come and offer the meal that you prepared?" Then she explained: "My teacher is not like this." So there actually she gives long line of verses to explain about her teacher but she uses one of these two [ santindriyo ]. She describes and venerates - praises the Buddha in these terms. She says: "My teacher has extremely calm senses, faculties are very calm. And it is not for show. His mind is very tranquil. He is very calm and his bearing is very calm and in walking - in going, in siting, in eating, in every way. His eyes are restraint, it doesn't take in all matter of objects, only what is necessary. He doesn't talk profitless talk. When he gets something, some profit or something to his advantage, he doesn't become proud or conceited about it. And if he loses anything, his mind does not shake, the mind does not fall. Whether he gets something or he loses something, his mind is in balance, it's the same in both events. This is my teacher...” And so on. 

So while she was reciting these qualities, the parents in law also ... faith and confidence arose in their hearts towards the Buddha. And then permitted her to - or asked her to bring her teacher home. So then she sent a message to her father Anāthapindika to invite the Buddha and the Sangha to the home. And they offered dāna to the Buddha and the Sangha, they came with him and it happened at the end of... after that the parents also were established in the path knowledge - stream entry. These verses that she chanted were ... basically described the sense restraint of the Buddha. In the Sutta Nipāta you will find a lot of explanations or details about indriya samvara - restraint of the senses. So you can't force it upon yourself but initially one has to contemplate, reflect and, kind of, assimilate, integrate. Then after that, gradually, it becomes something quite natural. And this unrestrained behavior just disappears. And apart from that it's sort of almost as if it's like... birthright... or something made ... or born in that person [ it becomes like his second nature]. There it is, kind of, almost at the level (he says) of a jhāna... Sorry... Even if there is no jhāna, that kind of level of tranquility is like, resembles a jhāna. That is referred to as 'tadanga kiles' - suppression of the defilements. 'Vikambana' - is when you don't have to think about it or contemplate and then suppress - it is sort of kept at the distance. And defilements really don't arise in the mind. And because of that the mind becomes nipaka - it means with wisdom or paññā.

 Nipaka is a higher degree of wisdom then what we would normally describe as paññā. It arises out of mindfulness and energy, or the combination of mindfulness and energy results in this nipaka – wisdom. Once again - there is an example in Samyutta Nikāya - also Loku Hāmuduru chanted a verse where this word nipaka is used apart from the verse we are studying now in Karanīya mettā sutta, which refers to this special wisdom of a bhikkhu and it's arisen out of mindfulness and energy. In the Path of purification - Visuddhimagga by Buddhaghosa hāmuduru also there is a reference to this word nipaka and of course that the entire volume is to do with meditation practice. So Loku Hāmuduru says it's really two, just two verses in Samyutta Nikāya which has been elaborated into this huge volume - that is the Visuddhimagga. The man with wisdom is established in sīla and begins to develop the mind. So ātapi is the energy that burns the defilements and then again the word nipaka is used - that special wisdom. It arises out of all this.So for such a person - where are the knots, what knots are there? If one is wise in this sense - nipaka - there are no problems, no knots. Now we have come forward quite a lot in the Karanīya mettā sutta, we have gone very far.

 The next word "appagabbho" refers to, sort of, the lack of coarse, gross qualities. So there is no coarseness or roughness of thoughts, of actions and of speech. In all three ways. Sometimes when I am deceived or when somebody lies to me then my mind becomes very rough. So without that input then the mind is not so rough. Then I think why these people engage in rough behavior, coarse behavior. That is called "pragalba" in pāli. There are eight bodily pragalbas, types of coarseness – pragalba. There are eight types of bodily coarseness. By speech there are four kinds of coarse speech. And all the rest of the coarseness is in the mind. In the mind sort of constant generation of gross, coarse thoughts. The sotāpanna has shed a lot of coarseness, particularly with regard to this aspect of issa and macchariya. Issa is jealousy and macchariya sort of having certain one's own belongings - one doesn't want to part with them and one tries to get to use other peoples' things for oneself. That quality - that and jealousy, sort of, reduced in him down a lot. Or lot of that coarseness is gone in the case of sotāpanna. The sotāpanna doesn't have the fetters of personality view, doubt and indulging in rites and rituals. The vicikicchā is a mental factor, the other two - rites and rituals and the personality view are not mental factors - cetasikas. They are sort of traits or which have come up because of habit. They are quite damaging. It's not a mental factor. OK. 

So sīla - we often observe precepts and certain behaviors because we have in our ... because of our conditioning, because of our background, family and what we have been taught. So that is an ongoing practice - it's not really a mental factor, Loku Hāmuduru says: “A habit.” And there is no mental concomitant called sīlabbata parāmāsa, this sort of indulging in rites and rituals. But this doubt - what is the fetter called doubt is a mental factor. When we speak of the hindrances starting from kāmacchanda / sense desire, ill-will, sloth and torpor, restlessness and doubt - these are all cetasikas - mental concomitants. Because of that it is possible to get rid of them. Doubt is a mental factor but the sotāpanna gets rid of three fetters: sakkāya ditthi, vicikicchā and sīlabbata parāmāsa. So the first one and the third one, they are taken from habits, the environment or somebody is influenced. But the five hindrances are mental factors.

 Question: "Habit includes tendencies?"
 Yes. “Sakkāya” is “Me and Mine”, that is there until you become an arahat, that works with pride, conceit. That exists up to arahatship, but the sotāpanna breaks the personality view. The ditthi that is tied up with the personality is gone, but the sakkāya can operate up to the higher degree. There is that sense of “Me - Mine” but without the view, wrong view. So there is no delusion about that there is something persisting, a personality persisting, some existence-to-existence or even going on. But there the feeling of somebody, which operates ...

 Q: "Is there a parable of a māna and sakkāya ditthi?"
 Komi akkā: “I don't know, but he says sakkāya operates with māna.”
 Q: "Yes, but can you ask LH if there is a simile?"
 KA: “OK, he will try to explain it in this way first. He is trying to explain now - it is often misrepresented or ... sakkāya ditthi he has written on the board, sakkāya plus ditthi. Sakkāya consists of tanhā - craving and māna - conceit. Ditthi we will put aside, it's something different. When somebody becomes a sotāpanna, the ditthi - the view - it's gone. So even certain cravings and conceit, which is together mixed up with view, there is craving and conceit which is tide up with view. So the sakkāya comes under samyojanas or fetters, but tanhā, māna - the component parts - are mental concomitants - cetasikas. So the sotāpanna doesn't eradicate craving and conceit but the kind of craving that can take him to a lower world has been eradicated. So the sotāpanna will not have sakkāya - personality which will take him to the lower worlds, but it does have sakkāya on it's own, which will take him to other kinds of rebirth - heavenly, human. And nipaka refers to a person who understands things as they are up to that point. 

So we can see from this that nipaka really refers to kind of sufficient knowledge, wisdom to recognize this state where the ditthi is tied up with craving and conceit and to eradicate the ditthi that goes with. So then the person who has this nipaka kind of wisdom he really does not take birth in a lower world,  because he has here understood this point. Sakkāya is there but not sakkāya ditthi. The view is gone. So it is ... nipaka is wisdom which has arisen out of energy which burns the defilements. So even if everything falls on his head there is not problem, he will just rebuild and help others also but there is no major problem. It's a very developed mind. Such a person is without coarseness. Not gross in any way. This roughness is not something that can be praised or considered good. Without this roughness there should be sort of mildness and softness. We have mentioned that there are eight ways of bodily coarseness. So we consider this kind of bodily ... coarseness from bodily actions both at home and in a place like a meditation center. There is a road that leads to your home, so there are vehicles on the road which have been parked in a way to obstruct the entrance to this house. So one does not have to have sort of nipaka wisdom but one should have some common sense of understanding about how to park a vehicle in a way that doesn't obstruct someone else. Certainly in a noble disciple individual such behaviors will not happen. So a sotāpanna parking his car, whoever it is, will not do it in a way as to obstruct somebody else. That is why I say there are no sotāpannas here [:-)].[Coarseness of bodily conduct] So there is certain restraint with regard to eating and the work in the kitchen at home. Dāna sālāvas. 

So you know that - like when you go to eat in your dining room in your house there is a certain fashion of eating, which is ... There is a restraint. Not like little children who might throw things around and crumbs and so on.  Person who will not have that kind of coarse way of eating. On one occasion I had to put up a notice with regard to eating habits. A yogi should be more developed in his eating habits than in a normal home. So we used to... about fifty of us would sit and eat - foreign and local monks in Burma when we were with Pandita Hāmuduru and then there was hardly any noise there but occasionally if a spoon fell on the floor then the head monk would lift his head, turn his head and see what was happening. There was a lot of very strong discipline there. Then there are some rules pertaining to the kitchen like a salt - sometimes you find people messing up things so badly that somebody else can't come and work there. To prevent this we don't allow people to go into the kitchen. Sometimes you can judge people - now they must be at home because of some things they try to do here. So this type of coarseness doesn't apply to a nipaka person. Then again pertaining to a bathing place - bathroom, well, whatever. 

So sometimes the people don't use these facilities properly, there may be soap everywhere and ... Sometimes it's like little, very little children who have used the bathroom. People who are with a lot of craving and conceit behave in one fashion and those without so much craving and conceit in another way. The Buddha also had a sort of place to take a wash - a bathroom. Loos' hygiene and looking after one's bathroom, that one uses, that also comes under this. So sometimes people have the wrong impression that yogi is sort of helpless disabled kind of person, who can't do anything for himself. There are rules pertaining to the use of and cleanliness of a toilet, which is very important. And on one occasion - because there was something to do with the rules of maintaining that - the Buddha actually left his group or Sangha and went off somewhere alone. There were lot of rules pertaining to the toilet or the use of toilet. And in old books there are ... LH thinks anywhere else in the world there would be so many rules with regard to the toilets. So it is for the training to become a nipaka person. I can't remember the rest. About the  speech there is also a kind of coarseness to be avoided. 

There is an idiom in Sinhala:“ It is better to be eaten up by a crocodile but we can't bear the thorns of this fruit or tree called cohila ... vegetable, yam...” What it implies is that some people kind of insinuate or hint rather than say something in a straight forward manner. That is... If you are straight forward in words, speech, that is like the crocodile and that is better than this hinting and insinuation which is like the thorns of this yam picking, which is unbearable. He... ..This book and refers to... So there’s like another reference to a place like a herbal bath with a vapor, I’m sure it’s something like a sauna and that there are rules pertaining to the use of that place. In Anuraddhapura and some other places also they have found I think ruins of this. ??...? There were three types of person also to be included in this. When there is an individual and then there is “group” of three people – a gana and then four. 

So three types of “person - group” can be effected by that set of five things we mentioned, that behaving in unrestrained manner in this five places which we mentioned earlier. There could be Sangha – a group of bhikkhus of four or more, who could be inconvenienced by this wrong behavior in these types of places. There could be a group of three which is called a gana and also an individual, who is also practicing and could be disturbed by this... improper behavior... Any of these people - groups can be effected by misuse of these facilities and their meditation can be affected adversely by this...[Coarseness of speech] So in the case of the meditation center like sometimes without permission somebody may go and give advice to another yogi about what they should be practicing or talking. So then... so there are two types of talk. There is a conversation going on [and somebody] might jump in (with the word). Sometimes there is sort of unnecessary concern. The food might be there... So for example the food might be displayed but somebody else will go and say: "Well, shall I serve some of this to you?" When... if somebody wants it and it's not... It's healthy for them, they will take it, it's provided.[Coarseness of mind] Coarseness of the mind is basically encompassed by these three aspects: kāma-vitakka - so thoughts about sensuality, thoughts about ill-will and thoughts about harming, hurting. So the less of these bad qualities one has, another person will find it easier to live with or associate. When you have less thoughts of sensuality and the other... Ill-will and thoughts of harming and hurting, the easier is to absorb the good qualities. That comes under appagabbho - all that.

Kulesu ananugiddho
 "Kulesu ananugiddho"That sort of refers to preferential treatment for those who are sort of supporting you and therefore you feel you have to look after them more then somebody else. If there is that kind of discrimination then this path is not very easy to travel. So it means not becoming attached to some people because they are close in some way. So if a meditator tries to, sort of, sympathize with their sadness and then becomes elated with their gladness, that yogi will not proceed on the spiritual path. There will be conversation from morning till night about what is happening and there will be no meditation taking place. That is not a good way to think for the meditator.

Na ca khuddam samācare kiñci, ~ yena viññū pare upavadeyyum
 So there may be people with different types of behavior, but you shouldn't go and look for their faults and talk about it, criticize, condemn or even judge, you know: "This monk is walking like this, now - can he be restrained?" Sometimes people can look restrained for a sort of in a conscious way or like sort of a performance, it is possible. Some who do it naturally. So Loku Hāmuduru has heard it with his own ears - sometimes people's comments that get past round you know, "What is it that monks can't go for particular ritual at home" or criticisms of that type, but knowledgeable wise people will not utter such speech. They will not judge. They will not sort of harp on or go on talking about some insignificant or trivial mistake or shortcoming but fools will talk about it a lot. So all this is -  up to now - is sort of qualities of a person who is about to start practicing mettā. Now turning towards a practice of mettā itself.

Sukhino vā khemino hontu, ~ sabbe sattā bhavantu sukhitattā! 
 So "sukhino vā" refers to "may all beings be [sabbe sattā bhavantu] well and happy," "khemino" is... refers to the fear, not having any fear, "may all beings be without fear." It is not good to give anyone fear or, a kind of agitation, to anyone. So a person who is a noble person and one who is practicing like this with the qualities required earlier, will not give any kind of fear to anybody else. So "khemino" is that sense of security, there is no fear. Behave in a way as not to cause fear in others. Fear can arise from many causes. Some people are kind of naturally suspicious. That borders on a sort of mental illness where they are so suspicious that you know of anyone who talks to them or even looks at them. That aspect of fear, which... So a person who is walking this path and training in this manner, even to that kind of person, his behavior will not affect even such a person with this sort of paranoid tendencies. And he will be extra careful not to kind of... Not to give fear to even such a person... who is prone to that kind of fear. There are people in this world who really get lot of joy out of scaring others, putting fear into them. Such a person when they come close... also you know - generate this fear and dread in others. So then such a person when there is a possibility of... There is fear and dread toward this person, kind of a bully type of a person, then there is no mettā in one's mind and heart. In forest you find this with animals. They are... Particularly fond of people don't arouse fear in them by looking at them and so on. You just live in a way that doesn't cause fear to them. Example when children stare at bird's nest. The bird is actually aware of it and is very fearful. So that even a staring at somebody... something like this can make fear arise. That type of behavior also must be avoided. That comes under sukhino and khemino, this security and sense of well-being of others. It's impossible to live in forest and so on without this feeling of security and safety and happiness, so these qualities have to be developed.

 Q: "What is his (Loku Hāmuduru's) definition of staring?"
 So he (LH) says even with animals we should not look at them in a sort of unnecessary way, he (LH) says. I don't know what he (LH) means by... So even ... sometimes people do stare at others in a way that, sort of, you know, inspires fear in them or some doubt or some... So one should not do that kind of thing. There is a kind of bull, wild bull, they are very very timid and fearful. Deers are also another category of very fearful animals and wild boar, pigs. Very scared. This wild pig - wild boar and wild bull, not deer, are sort of very defensive and they will come straight to attack because of this. It is because of this intense fear that they, you know, show this aggressive behavior. 

Animals dislike being stared at a lot. Sometimes people stare at yogis who are meditating in such... And they sort of feel that and then after that stop meditating. Like staring at, you know, animals in a ZOO. Sometimes people... At mealtime people are observing other people eating. Maybe they are practicing walking meditation and people... Some people stop and just stare at them. So when you do these things the yogi naturally will not do his proper meditation. Very good yogi will not be seen by others, really because otherwise it becomes like a performance and... for a... especially when there is photographer. So even George... it's obvious that you don't want photographer around you when you are meditating.
 George: "But that creates conflicts. Because if people sit outside I have a reason, you know... Maybe my kuti is too hot, I fall asleep, will be tired... So I take the risk of being stared at and being photographed by sitting outside and going inside I take the risk of falling asleep, so..."

 LH: “Yes, you are not thinking about being photographed when you sit for meditation outside your kuti or wanting to do your meditation.”

 G: "No, I'm not attracting these kind of things, but it happens from time to time. I'm talking about a past event... because that makes you aware. The new machines click without noise. The old machines - you heard the noise, click."

 Ven. Nandadeva: "Can I say something? Because it's... To me. I took a picture five, six years ago when George was meditating there in Kanduboda. He was angry with me. But I never told you... but I have to tell you now why I took the picture. I took the picture because I saw many people when they are meditating, the face changes very much. And maybe they are younger for five years, they look younger. Maybe there is a difference of the shape of the face. That's why I took the picture."
 G: "This is true, this is true, because..."
 LH: "The Buddha actually said this in his teachings about how when you are meditating specially with mettā the face or the appearance becomes..."
 G: "This is effect, because the evidence is: he (Ven. Nandadeva) doesn't take photos anymore and I look ten years younger!"
 LH: "In any way there will be no fear or annoyance created. Teruwan saranayi."

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